Artificial insemination by donor is an assisted reproductive technique used in:
- Cases of male infertility.
- Cases in which a STD or hereditary disease can be transmitted to the child.
- Cases when the woman desires to be on motherhood without engaging in sexual intercourse.
Comparison with AIH
The main difference between this type of insemination and AIH (Artificial Insemination by Husband) is how semen is obtained. In the first case, a sperm donor is selected by the clinic.
That is, the patient receiving the semen does not intervene in the donor’s selection and he will remain anonymous. The donor does not know the identity of the woman or couple who gets his spermatic material.
This selection is bases on the blood group and physical characteristics of the future parents.
The other points of the process are virtually identical.
To determine if the man can be a donor, his healthy and history of psychological disorders of hereditary diseases are studied. His sperm quality is evaluated.
Donors have to be of age and not have more than 35 years.
Semen quality should be much higher than what is considered normal and the sperm must be able to survive thawing. Many young people, who wish to donate, are rejected because of the quality of their semen.
The female patient must meet the following requirements:
- Tubal patency of at least one of the fallopian tubes.
- Adequate ovarian response to medication.
- Endometrial ability to accept implantation.
Success rates of AID vary depending on each clinic, the chosen donor, and the woman, among other factors.
As a general rule, young women under age 35 undergoing artificial insemination by donor present a pregnancy rate which ranges between 19 up to 30%.
It is important to remember that the pregnancy rate of artificial insemination is cumulative. This means that after failing the first time, another four attempts should be performed, since the pregnancy rate keeps on increasing. Thus, after four attempts, the pregnancy rate of artificial insemination by donor can be as high as 60-68%.
The advantages of artificial insemination by donor are the same as those of artificial insemination by husband (AIH). They have been explained in the general article about artificial insemination (AI).
Risks of AID are exactly the same as those of AIH. Therefore, just as in the preceding paragraph, they are explained in the general article about AI.