By Zaira Salvador BSc, MSc (embryologist).
Last Update: 11/30/2018

Nowadays, an increasing number of women have to deal with some kind of chronic disease, which is to say, a disease that persists over a long period of time and has no cure.

Some of the most common examples are cardiovascular diseases, cancer, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, and diabetes.

Chronic diseases do not prevent you from having children. However, women in this situation who get pregnant are often diagnosed with a high-risk pregnancy, as pregnancy may worsen the symptoms of the disease.

Cardiovascular diseases

Cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) are associated with problems in the heart and blood vessels. In fact, nowadays they are the leading cause of death worldwide.

Although there exists a great variety of CVDs, the following are the ones that can get worse during pregnancy:

  • Venous thromboembolism (VTE)
  • High blood pressure
  • Anemia
  • Congenital cardiopathies

Venereal diseases

Venereal diseases, also known as Sexually Transmitted Diseases (STDs) or Sexually Transmitted Infections (STIs), are transmitted through unprotected sexual contact, although there exist other routes of infection.

TORCH syndrome is the medical term used to refer to a group of bacterial, viral, or parasitic diseases that can be transmitted from mother to baby during pregnancy.

The abbreviation TORCH includes Toxoplasmosis, Other (syphilis and HIV), Rubella, Cytomegalovirus (CMV), and Herpes infections.

There exists no definitive cure for viral infections, including HIV. As a matter of fact, they are the ones with the highest number of risks associated when it comes to getting pregnant, since transmission can occur through two pathways: horizontal (to partner) and vertical (to offspring).

Fetuses and newborns with TORCH syndrome typically develop the following diseases: intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR), hydrocephalus, microcephaly, pneumonitis, calcification in the brain, heart defects, hemolytic anemia, glaucoma, etc.

Autoimmune diseases

Autoimmune diseases affect the immune system, that is, the immune cells (lymphocytes, leukocytes…) do not carry out their function properly.

This type of diseases are associated with pregnancy complications, and some of them lead to recurrent miscarriage, including:

  • Rheumatoid arthritis (RA)
  • Thrombophilia
  • Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE)
  • Myasthenia gravis
  • Celiac disease

Endocrine disorders

Endocrine disorders are those affecting the production of hormones, or causing the endocrine system function to be altered.

Diabetes mellitus is the most common chronic endocrine disorder present in the world’s population, and it characterizes for high blood sugar levels.

Also, thyroid gland problems can lead to endocrine disorders like hypothyroidism or hyperthyroidism.

FAQs from users

What are intercurrent conditions in pregnancy?

By Zaira Salvador BSc, MSc (embryologist).

Intercurrent conditions observed during pregnancy are not caused directly by the pregnancy itself, but it can get worse as a consequence of this new state in the woman.

Additionally, these diseases can lead to complications and become a potential risk for the pregnancy.

Can STDs be transmitted from mother to baby during pregnancy?

By Zaira Salvador BSc, MSc (embryologist).

Yes, some Sexually Transmitted Diseases (STDs) can be transmitted from mother to fetus during pregnancy or at birth. Some examples are gonorrhea, chlamydia, syphilis, and HIV.

That is the reason why it is crucial for all pregnant women to do all checkups and serologies recommended. STDs can become severe, or even lead to stillbirth.

Which diseases of pregnancy affect the fetus directly?

By Zaira Salvador BSc, MSc (embryologist).

Any disease the pregnant woman suffers while pregnant affects the baby to some extent. Among the most common signs and symptoms, we can mention intrauterine growth restriction, risk of preterm birth, C-section, mental retardation, etc.

Thus, taking care of yourself whilst pregnant is essential, especially if you suffer from a chronic disease or pathology.

What are the most common dental problems during pregnancy?

By Zaira Salvador BSc, MSc (embryologist).

Dental problems are common during pregnancy due to fluctuations in hormone levels and increased estrogen levels, which affect teeth and gums directly. These are some examples:

  • Tooth decay
  • Swelling (inflammation) of the gingiva
  • Acid erosion on teeth
  • Periodontal disease

Suggested for you

As explained above, all these diseases in the mother-to-be can lead to high-risk pregnancy, which requires closer monitoring and special care. Click here to learn more: High-Risk Pregnancy – How Can You Manage It?

As for the medications that one can take during pregnancy, you can read more on this article: What Medications Are Safe to Take during Pregnancy?

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References

Adachi K, Xu J, Ank B, Watts DH, Camarca M, Mofenson LM, Pilotto JH, Joao E, Gray G et al. Congenital Cytomegalovirus and HIV Perinatal Transmission. Pediatr Infect Dis J. 2018;37(10):1016-1021

Hall ME, George EM, Granger JP. El corazón durante el embarazo. Rev Esp Cardiol. 2011;64(11):1045-50

Madrid L, Varo R, Sitoe A, Bassat Q. Congenital and perinatally-acquired infections in resource-constrained settings. Expert Rev Anti Infect Ther. 2016;14(9):845-61

Méndez de Varona YB, Batista Sánchez T, Peña Marrero Y, Torres Acosta R. Principales enfermedades bucodentales en embarazadas. Correo Científico Médico de Holguín 2016; 20 (4): 702-713

Authors and contributors

 Zaira Salvador
BSc, MSc
Embryologist
Bachelor's Degree in Biotechnology from the Polytechnic University of Valencia (UPV). Embryologist specializing in Assisted Procreation, with a Master's Degree in Biotechnology of Human Assisted Reproduction from the University of Valencia (UV) and the Valencian Infertility Institute (IVI). More information
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