When it comes to using donor eggs, several doubts and questions arise, either related to making the decision, getting started with the treatment, or issues related to genetics. The purpose of this article is to answer the most frequently asked questions (FAQs) and queries raised by egg donor recipients either before, during, or after the treatment.
The various sections of this article are assembled in the following table of contents.
How much does IVF with egg donation cost?
The cost of egg donation depends widely on the country where the patient undergoes treatment.
While in European countries such as Spain, Cyprus, the Czech Republic, Portugal, or Greece it ranges from €3,800 to €5,500 approximately, in others such as Ukraine and Russia, it can be as high as €8,500-11,000. In the UK, however, egg donation costs about £9,500.
As for the USA, it is the most expensive destination, but at the same time the one that offers the possibility of choosing between a known, a semi-known, or an anonymous donor, which is an advantage for many egg donor recipients. On average, the price there reaches $20,000-40,000.
Other popular egg donation destinations around the world are Barbados and South Africa, where the price range is €4,500-5,900.
Read more in the following post: Cost of IVF with donor eggs.
If I use donor eggs, will the baby look like me?
When matching an egg donor to a recipient, fertility clinics take into account that there is compatibility between them and that they share as many phenotype and immunological characteristics as possible. So, theoretically, yes, a baby conceived with donor eggs is likely to look like the birth mother.
However, it is important to note that the biological mother of the baby will be the egg donor, so in terms of genetic inheritance, the answer to this questions is no, the baby will not look like the recipient, since he or she does not share the genetic load with her.
Does a donor egg have my DNA?
No, donated eggs contain the DNA of the donor. The fact that it is later fertilized in the laboratory and transferred to the recipient’s uterus does not modify the original genetic code of the egg. The embryo, therefore, contains the donor’s genetic material.
Do babies from egg donation share genes with the birth mother?
As explained above, egg donor babies do not share the genetic load of the birth mother, but that of the egg donor, who is in fact the biological mother.
Nevertheless, recent studies have shown that recipients of donor eggs still pass some traits of their DNA through a phenomenon called epigenetics, a branch of Biology that studies the influence of a person’s lifestyle on who he or she is, regardless of the gene expression.
So, factors such as the mother’s diet during pregnancy could affect the development of the baby-to-be’s gene expression.
If I use donor eggs, will the baby be mine?
Absolutely. Having a child is not only about sharing your DNA with him or her, but about educating, bringing up and enjoying life together as a family. Women who become mothers via egg donation love the baby exactly as any other female who got pregnant naturally with her own eggs would do. Having a child, no matter how you do it, is one of the most gratifying and rewarding experiences in life.
So, those women who are afraid of developing feelings of regrets once pregnant or after the birth of the child should know that this idea will disappear eventually.
Who will the baby look like in cases of egg donation?
As mentioned earlier, fertility clinics make sure that egg donors share similar physical characteristics with the recipient, so that they resemble the future child in spite of not sharing their DNA with him or her, and the same applies in cases where donor sperm is used. If the baby is conceived using your partner’s or husband’s sperm, then he or she will resemble him as well.
How can I prepare for IVF with donor eggs?
From the medical point of view, the recipient has to get her body ready to receive the embryo that has been created using donor eggs in order to maximize the chances of implantation.
If fresh donor eggs are used, then synchronization between the cycles of the donor and the recipient is required. Inversely, this step is not needed when frozen donor eggs are used.
The recipient has to prepare her body for donor-egg IVF by means of endometrial preparation, which makes the uterus to grow its lining so that it is prepared for the embryo to implant successfully after the transfer (ET). To this end, the patient has to follow a strict drug protocol.
How successful is IVF with donor eggs?
In general, the use of donor eggs makes an IVF treatment more likely to succeed, as the oocytes have been donated by young, healthy girls who enjoy a good ovarian reserve, features that make the quality of the eggs they produce optimal.
In comparison, if the normal pregnancy rate of IVF with own eggs stands at 35-34% on average, with donor eggs it increases to up to 55-63% approximately. These figures, however, depend on the uterine receptivity of the patient.
Visit the following article to learn more: Pregnancy success rates with donor eggs.
How many embryos should be transferred with donor eggs?
Specialists do recommend everyone undergoing IVF, whether it is done using own or donated eggs, to transfer one embryo in order for a multiple pregnancy to be prevented. There exist certain cases where transferring two embryos would be justified, including poor embryo quality and previous failed IVF attempts with a single embryo.
Also, given that the final decision is in the hands of the patient, sometimes younger patients who wish to have twins request a 2-embryo transfer from the beginning. The older the woman is, the higher the number of risks associated with a multiple pregnancy.
What are the success rates with donor eggs in women over 40?
With donor eggs, the chances of getting pregnant stand at 50-70% per cycle for women in their forties. It should be kept in mind that uterine receptivity might decline with advanced age. The reasons behind it might include biochemical and/or molecular aberrations of the endometrial lining, incidence of pathological conditions in the uterus (e.g. polyps, myomas…), hypertension, etc.
Why does donor-egg IVF fail?
Several complications not necessarily related to egg quality can lead to IVF failure or the impossibility to carry the pregnancy to term in spite of having used donor eggs, including:
- Genetic abnormalities, which might lead to embryonic arrest at any point of embryo development
- Uterine alterations that might prevent the embryo from continuing its development and cause the woman to miscarry
- Implantation failure due to poor endometrial receptivity
Can you get pregnant with donor eggs after menopause?
Yes, it is possible to have a baby after menopause, a phenomenon known as postmenopausal pregnancy. Menopause is defined as the cessation of menstruation, which means the loss of ovarian activity. However, this does not affect the uterus, which is still functional, and able to carry a pregnancy. This is perfectly possible with either donor eggs from a young girl, the woman’s own previously frozen eggs, or the couple’s frozen embryos, if any.
What are the miscarriage rates with donor eggs?
While in women younger than 45, the implantation rate is 45% on average, it drops to 35% in women from the 45-50 age group. Subsequently, the miscarriage rates increase with age in spite of using donor eggs: while they are less than 10% when the woman is 45 or less, they stand at 16% on average for women over 45. As explained above, a decline in endometrial receptivity is usually the reason behind this.
What are the most common pregnancy symptoms with donor eggs?
Firstly, it should be noted that, when a woman gets pregnant using donated ova, pregnancy develops as any normal, natural pregnancy would do. However, the symptoms can vary a little bit due to the medications egg donor recipients have to take. In short, nausea and vomiting, frequent urination, exhaustion, extreme hunger or loss of appetite, heightened sense of smell, etc., among others, are the most common early pregnancy symptoms.
See also: Pregnancy symptoms after DE-IVF.
Can I use donor eggs from my sister?
It depends on the country where the process is taking place. In the United States, for instance, the answer to this question would be yes, as egg donor recipients can choose a known, semi-known, or anonymous donor depending on their preferences.
In Spain, Cyprus, Ukraine, the Czech Republic, etc., donors must remain anonymous by law. In the UK, since April 2005, anonymous are not required to be anonymous in accordance with the HFE Act. All donor-conceived children have the chance to know the identity of their donor if they wish to after turning 18.
Are you interested in learning more about this? Do not miss this article: Egg donation to a family member.
What are the risks of egg donation for recipients?
The main risk of egg donation for recipients is becoming pregnant with multiples if more than one embryo is transferred. To avoid this, recipients are encouraged to bet on a single embryo transfer (SET), as the high quality of the eggs used guarantees a high success rate even with a SET. As for the side effects derived from the medications for endometrial preparation, these are considerably lower than those associated with the medical process for egg donors.
When should I take a pregnancy test after a donor-egg embryo transfer?
Like in any other IVF procedure, after an embryo transfer with donated eggs, women have to go through the two-week wait or 2WW, a time period necessary for beta-hCG levels to be detectable by a pregnancy test.
The presence of the hormone hCG in blood increases gradually from embryo implantation up until the end of the third trimester approximately. This, along with other hormonal changes, is the reason why the common pregnancy symptoms appear (nausea, vomiting, etc.)
What are the chances of twins with donor eggs?
As already explained, the chances of twins with egg donation are higher than in normal IVF cycles using the woman’s own eggs due to the young age of donors, which translates into very healthy oocytes. This is the reason why multiple embryo transfers are unadvisable.
On average, if more than one embryo is transferred, the likelihood of becoming pregnant with twins is about 40%, while the chances of carrying triplets or greater is roughly 4%.