An episiotomy is a minor surgery that increases the opening of the vagina for fetal outflow during delivery. It involves cutting the vaginal mucosa as well as the skin and muscles of the perineum.
Like another surgical wound, the risks of episiotomy are the same as those of other deep incisions, but taking into account the location of the same in the perineal region where the patient urinates or makes a bowel movement. In addition, during the postpartum period there is a "quarantine" characterized by a genital bleeding of about a month and a half of duration that always keeps the area moist.
Consequently, we may find the following complications:
- Enlargement of the cut, into the vagina including the anus rectum.
- Bleeding or bruising.
- Infection, due to the fact that many bacteria live in the genital area.
- Painful cicatrization: the points that are applied for the closure "pull" and bother the patient.
- Dyspareunia: pain during sexual intercourse time after complete healing.
Usual clinical practice avoids performing an episiotomy whenever possible by weighing risks/benefits intrapartum.