ICSI is a procedure used for in vitro fertilization (IVF) whereby a sperm cell is microinjected directly into an egg to create viable embryos. After that, the resulting embryos are transferred back to the uterus of the intended mother, so that pregnancy hopefully occurs. Given that it is a type of IVF, we often refer to it with the name IVF/ICSI.
The main advantage of ICSI are its high success rates. In most cases, pregnancy is achieved after the first attempt, even in the most severe cases of male infertility.
The fact that it is a type of IVF, with each one of the steps involve, makes the cost of the treatment range between $13,000 and $15,000.
Below you have an index with the 12 points we are going to deal with in this article.
ICSI is the abbreviation of Intracytoplasmic Sperm Injection. This technique allows us to choose the best sperm to insert it inside a microinjection needle.
Then, while the oocyte is being held from one side, the needle is carefully inserted in the opposite side, so that the sperm is injected into the cytoplasm of the egg.
The goal is that the egg and sperm fuse together. In other words, that fertilization takes place successfully.
Difference between IVF & ICSI
The main difference between Intrauterine Insemination (IUI) and IVF lies in the fact that, in the case of IUI, fertilization occurs inside the woman. In other words, retrieving the eggs is not required. Conversely, in the case of IVF, the eggs are collected prior to being fertilized in the lab. Finally, out of the resulting embryos, the one with the highest quality is selected to be transferred back to the uterus.
ICSI and conventional IVF are similar infertility treatments which differ in the way the sperm is inserted inside the oocyte. In the case of conventional IVF, it is the sperm cell which penetrates the egg coat by itself:
- Classical IVF
- The sperm itself has to go through the egg coat in order to fertilize it.
- The specialist inserts directly the sperm cell into the egg cell. This is what makes it more challenging than classical IVF.
Another major difference between them is related to the cost of each: the more technically challenging, the higher the cost, and ICSI is a great example of this.
Related content: IVF vs. ICSI, Which One Is Better? - How to Make the Right Choice.
Which one is better and why?
As Dr. Miguel Dolz, OB/GYN specialized in Reproductive Medicine, confirms, actually the most widely used IVF technique used if ICSI, especially in countries where the use of reproductive technologies is vastly extended. Simply put, nearly 80% of the clinics use ICSI on a regular basis.
However, he is also in favor of conventional IVF as a more "ecological" alternative. Indeed, classical IVF is less aggressive with the gametes and embryos than other procedures like ICSI.
What is ICSI used for?
ICSI is used when the male's sperm cells have trouble penetrating the egg by themselves. Although it is usually done with the husband's or partner's sperm, donor semen samples can be used as well.
Nonetheless, ICSI is the method of choice also in the case of couples who turn to IVF without a pre-existing severe cause of male infertility in order to make sure that fertilization occurs.
The following are some of the most important indications for ICSI:
- Obstructive azoospermia: The sperms are prevented from mixing with the remaining seminal fluid due to a blockage in any of the ejaculatory ducts. Sperm production occurs, yet the sperms are not expelled.
- Non-obstructive azoospermia: No sperm is produced, as the problem remains in the testes, which is the location where spermatozoa are created.
It refers to poor sperm quality caused by the absence of sperm concentration in the ejaculate. The WHO (World Health Organization) uses a cut-off of not less than 15 million sperm per milliliter as a general recommendation.
This male infertility problem is also known as oligospermia.
Obviously, oligozoospermia has different degrees of severity. As a general rule, the further away it is from the WHO's reference value, the more severe the semen sample is.
The most severe cases are referred to as cryptozoospermia, a condition in which the sperm concentration is below 100,000 sperm/ml of semen.
Also known as asthenospermia, this parameter measures sperm quality according to how motile they are. In accordance with the WHO, this pathology is diagnosed whenever the amount of progressive spermatozoa or able to move forward is less than 32%.
Also, the total count of motile sperms should be above 40%.
Teratozoospermia or teratospermia refers to a problem in sperm morphology. According to the Kruger strict criteria, the presence of more than 85% abnormal sperm in the ejaculate indicates male sterility. In these cases, ICSI is the most advisable treatment to achieve parenthood.
If the WHO's criteria is followed, then a semen sample is considered to have teratospermia if more than 96% of sperm are morphologically abnormal.
Several abnormal sperm test values
In addition to the above listed sperm pathologies, it is possible for various sperm values to appear altered in the semen analysis.
Taking this into account, the following combinations are possible:
- Oligoasthenozoospermia: alterations in sperm concentration and motility.
- Oligoteratospermia: alterations in sperm concentration and morphology.
- Asthenoteratospermia: alterations in sperm motility and morphology.
- Oligoasthenoteratospermia: alterations in sperm motility, morphology and concentration.
Males who have had their semen cryopreserved due to cancer treatments (radiotherapy or chemotherapy) or those unable to ejaculate under normal conditions are recommended to undergo ICSI as well.
ICSI is not so common in cases of female infertility. It is used in cases where a scarce number of oocytes have been obtained after ovum pick-up, if there is an enlargement of the zona pellucida, or in women producing poor-quality eggs.
Nevertheless, this is a controversial issue. Many specialists argue that, in cases where the eggs are more fragile, classical IVF is more advisable because the level of manipulation of the eggs is less aggressive.
How does it work?
The steps to follow in an ICSI procedure are the same as in IVF, but differ in the way the eggs are inseminated:
- Controlled ovarian stimulation (COS): Patients are given hormone fertility medications to promote the maturation of multiple egg cells with good quality in a single cycle. Regular ultrasound monitoring is necessary to assess follicle growth.
- Ovum pick-up or follicle puncture: When ultrasounds show the follicles have almost reached the right size for ovulation, egg collection is scheduled. It is a simple surgical procedure which is done with mild anesthesia and takes around 30 minutes. During this process, the follicular fluid (FF) containing the eggs is aspirated.
- Oocyte denudation: It is done at the laboratory and consists in examining the FF obtained after egg harvesting in search of oocytes. After some time resting, the eggs are "stripped", which is to say, the cumulus cells surrounding them are removed.
- Sperm collection and preparation: The semen sample is generally obtained by masturbation and washed prior to fertilization. The washing process is known as sperm capacitation and involves "mixing" only those sperms with the highest quality. When collection cannot be done by means of masturbation, sperms can be obtained through testicular biopsy or epididymal aspiration.
- Egg insemination: A sperm is selected, aspirated with a microinjection needle, and injected into the ovum. The ultimate goal is to ensure that the fusion between both partner's DNAs (i.e. fertilization) occurs.
- Embryo culture: After fertilization, the resulting embryos are cultured in an incubator so that they continue developing. IVF incubators keep the optimum conditions of temperature, light and humidity for embryo growth.
- Preparation of the uterine lining: Estrogens and progesterone are administered through vaginal, mouth or patch route to get her uterine lining to be receptive and in excellent conditions for embryo development.
- Embryo transfer (ET): The best embryo(s) is selected for the transfer according to its quality. ET is a simple step that takes only a few minutes, and anesthesia/sedation is not required. The embryos are placed in the uterine fundus with a fine catheter, so that they are hopefully able to implant to the endometrial lining and lead to a successful pregnancy.
- Embryo freezing: High-quality unused embryos are cryopreserved (frozen) for later use.
Oftentimes, additional services may be required in addition to ICSI-IVF in order to make pregnancy possible or increase the success rates, including:
- IVF/ICSI with testicular biopsy
- In patients with azoospermia, sperm could be retrieved directly from the testes with a testicular biopsy. ICSI is the only technique that can be used for fertilization.
- pICSI (physiological ICSI)
- The specialist selects those sperm cells that are more likely to fertilize in natural conditions, that is, as in natural conception.
- It stands for Intracytoplasmic Morphologically Selected Sperm Injection. IMSI allows us to select the sperms with the best morphology.
- ICSI with Annexin V Columns (MACS)
- To select sperms with the highest quality (non-apoptotic spermatozoa).
- IVF/ICSI with PGD
- Thanks to PGD (Preimplantation Genetic Diagnosis), we can select the embryos that are healthy (free from genetic diseases).
- Assisted Hatching
- It involves weakening the zona pellucida (ZP) of the embryos to facilitate implantation. It is, however, falling into disuse in most laboratories today.
Although the success rates of IVF with ICSI depend on each particular case, the main factor to determine its success rate is the woman's age. It is established according to the following age ranges:
- 40% in women under 35
- 27-36% in women between 35 and 37
- 20-26% in women between 38 and 40
- 10-13% in women above 40
Nevertheless, it should be clear that these are just standard rates, and may vary not only from patient to patient, but also depending on the fertility clinic chosen.
What is taken as a reference also matters when it comes to talking about success rates. For instance, while some consider it has been successful after obtaining a positive pregnancy test (fertilization rate), others refer to the live birth rate solely. This is the reason why one should pay special attention when comparing between the success rates of infertility treatments.
You may also enjoy some further information reading this: How Successful Is IVF with ICSI? – Pregnancy & Live Birth Rates.
What are the potential risks and side effects?
The potential risks associated with ICSI include:
- Ovarian Hyperstimulation Syndrome (OHSS): It is due to an excessive response to hormone therapy for ovarian stimulation. It can cause the woman to feel physical discomfort, bloating, etc. However, today it occurs rarely and with a low degree of severity in the vast majority of cases. Ultrasound monitoring is crucial while on ovulation induction for this reason.
- Multiple births: With two-embryo transfers, the twin rate reaches 6%. When three embryos are transferred, this rate rises to 12%, and the likelihood of having triplets to 3%. Current research focuses on improving the embryo selection process to choose only those with an excellent quality. This means they aim to improve the success rate with single embryo transfers (SET).
- Miscarriage: It is estimated that miscarriage occurs in 20-22% of the cycles. It usually happens while the woman is on the earliest stages of pregnancy.
- Ectopic pregnancy: It occurs when the embryo implants in a location outside the uterus. Statistical data has shown that 2 to 5 women per every 100 undergoing in vitro fertilization can have an ectopic pregnancy. Chances drop to 1-1.5% in the case of natural pregnancies.
What is the cost of ICSI?
Like any other fertility treatment, the prices of IVF with ICSI are variable and can range between different figures depending on the clinic, country, and particularities of each infertility case.
Special features such as the use of donor eggs and donor sperm or the need for PGD (preimplantation genetic diagnosis) or a testicular biopsy, etc. can increase or decrease the overall cost of ICSI.
Broadly speaking, the cost of ICSI ranges from $13,000 to $15,000. Normally, there is no difference between the fees for conventional IVF and those of ICSI procedures. Some clinics may offer different prices depending on the method they use for egg fertilization, though.
If you need to undergo IVF to become a mother, we recommend that you generate your Fertility Report now. In 3 simple steps, it will show you a list of clinics that fit your preferences and meet our strict quality criteria. Moreover, you will receive a report via email with useful tips to visit a fertility clinic for the first time.
Another aspect to keep in mind when estimating the cost of ICSI is related to the personal situation the couple or individual is living currently. While it can work on the first attempt, sometimes it fails, in which case more cycles would be necessary. So, it should be taken into account that costs can vary depending on the severity of the infertility problem and the number of attempts needed.
FAQs from users
What are the pros and cons of ICSI over IVF?
ICSI, intracytoplasmic sperm injection was developed in 1988 as a treatment for male infertility, i.e., men with very poor sperm parameters, to treat failure of fertilization with IVF. ICSI is now used routinely in many IVF programs as the fertilization rate is higher than with standard fertilization techniques and the pregnancy rates are higher. There is inadequate information about a possible increase in congenital anomalies with ICSI. There appears to be an increased risk of identical twinning with ICSI, especially with transferring blastocysts. This may be as high as 2%.
What is PICSI?
The PICSI technique refers to what is known as physiological ICSI. This is a form of sperm selection prior to introduction into the egg.
It is based on the ability of the sperm to bind to hyaluronic acid, a substance that coats eggs. To do this, a special plate is used in which there are a few drops of a substance similar to hyaluronic acid that covers the eggs. Thus, the sperm capable of adhering to the plate will be those of the highest quality and potential for fertilization.
In which cases is ICSI used automatically?
ICSI or Intracytoplasmic Sperm Injection is a type of In Vitro Fertilization that is used to fertilize the egg cell. With ICSI, the sperm cell is selected and injected within each one of the eggs collected.
Unanimously recognized indications of ICSI include:
- Severe male infertility: a single sperm per egg cell is enough
- Previous fertilization failure using conventional IVF
- Issues with the oocytes: poor-quality eggs may compromise sperm penetration into the egg cell
- Techniques that involve isolating the egg from the cells that surround it (egg donation, preimplantation diagnosis...)
As regards the number of IVF attempts before giving up, does it vary if it is conventional IVF or ICSI?
Unless fertilization failure has occurred with IVF, we usually take into account all cycles done with both techniques before deciding to move on to another treatment such as egg donation. Even though each patient is different, the average number of IVF attempts recommended is 3 or 4 at our clinic.
What are the advantages and disadvantages of ICSI over IVF?
Both techniques are reproductive technologies, and as such, we cannot say that one is better than the other. Actually, it depends on the diagnosis of each couple. In the case of conventional IVF, we put the oocyte in contact with a determined concentration of sperm, so that the sperm itself fertilizes the egg, which resembles natural fertilization to a large extent. In many cases, sperm quality is altered, in which case using the sperm won't be possible. In such situations, we use ICSI. It consists in microinjecting the sperm, which is subjectively selected by the embryologists, into the oocyte.
What is assisted hatching in IVF with ICSI?
Assisted Hatching (AH) is a state-of-the-art technique that is used both in conventional IVF an ICSI procedures. It involves the artificial disruption of the ZP (zona pellucida) after the egg is fertilized in the laboratory.
AH is performed after IVF and ICSI procedures, right before the embryo transfer. The embryologist creates a small hole in the ZP by means of micromanipulation under a microscope. By doing this, we make it easier for the embryo to hatch out of the zona pellucida and implant to the uterine lining.
According to the ASRM (American Society for Reproductive Medicine), it is used in cases of women with advanced maternal age, poor embryo quality or after the failure of two or more previous IVF cycles.
What is the difference between ICSI and IUI?
IUI (intrauterine insemination) is the simplest of all fertility treatments, while ICSI is way more complex, as it is a more direct approach at egg fertilization.
With IUI, the sperm is placed inside the uterine cavity and allowed to move forward by themselves toward the oocyte. Broadly speaking, they penetrate it under their own "power".
Conversely, with ICSI there is no need for the sperms to travel through the vaginal cavity by themselves, as a spermatozoon is injected directly into the oocyte, which causes fertilization to occur artificially.
Another difference is that ICSI occurs outside the female body, after egg retrieval. In the case of IUI, the process of fertilization and egg insemination occurs as it would occur naturally inside the woman's reproductive system.
When PGD/PGS is required, what is better, ICSI or IVF?
If PGD (preimplantation genetic diagnosis) is to be used as well, egg fertilization is done via ICSI to avoid harmful interferences with PGD outcomes.
In IVF procedures, a percentage of the sperms that tried to penetrate the egg remain adhered to its surface. Because of that, some of their genetic material can be dragged during the embryo biopsy for PGD, which could alter the final result of this technique.
How effective is ICSI with testicular biopsy?
It depends on each case. If an sperm per each egg available for fertilization is obtained, then there are chances for success. Conversely, if no alive spermatozoon is collected, ICSI cannot be performed.
How many tries with ICSI before getting pregnant?
While some achieve pregnancy on the first attempt, others need two, three or more attempts to finally become pregnant. Since a number of factors could have an impact on the outcome of ICSI, we cannot provide you with an specific figure.
Egg and sperm quality, embryo quality, the cause of infertility, and the conditions of the endometrial lining are some factors that could influence the success rate of ICSI.
Why not using ICSI in all IVF procedures? What are its pros and cons?
Infertility treatments always aim to imitate the natural process of conception as much as possible as the first option. With conventional IVF, the sperm reaches and penetrates the egg by itself. However, in IVF with ICSI procedures, the embryologists injects the sperm directly into the egg. This is the reason why conventional IVF is more similar to natural conception.
Also, the sperm is chosen by natural selection, while with ICSI it is done following the criterion of the specialist. A sperm capable of fertilizing the egg with their own power is a healthy one, and therefore one able to create viable embryos.
What are my chances of having twins with ICSI?
No, it basically depends on the number of embryos to transfer. The chances of having a multiple pregnancy with single embryo transfers (SET) are very low. However, with two embryos, it rises to 6%.
If my sperm count is zero but I have obtained few sperms with a testicular biopsy, what are my chances of success with ICSI?
As explained earlier, a single sperm per egg retrieved is enough, so there is no need for it to have an excellent quality. This is the reason why obtaining viable embryos is possible by removing the sperms directly from the testis.
Suggested for you
This post focuses on In Vitro Fertilization (IVF) with ICSI, but what do you know about classical or standard IVF? Check out this for information: What Is In Vitro Fertilization (IVF)? – Process, Cost & Success Rates.
To learn more about the cases in which ICSI is used, you can learn more here: When Is Intracytoplasmic Sperm Injection (ICSI) Required?
Our editors have made great efforts to create this content for you. By sharing this post, you are helping us to keep ourselves motivated to work even harder.
Reproducción Asistida ORG. Video: ¿Qué tipo de técnica FIV es la más empleada y por qué? (Which technique is the most widely used one and why?), by Miguel Dolz Arroyo, MD, PhD, Jun 16, 2014. [See original video in Spanish].
FAQs from users: 'What are the pros and cons of ICSI over IVF?', 'What is PICSI?', 'In which cases is ICSI used automatically?', 'As regards the number of IVF attempts before giving up, does it vary if it is conventional IVF or ICSI?', 'What are the advantages and disadvantages of ICSI over IVF?', 'What is assisted hatching in IVF with ICSI?', 'What is the difference between ICSI and IUI?', 'When PGD/PGS is required, what is better, ICSI or IVF?', 'How effective is ICSI with testicular biopsy?', 'How many tries with ICSI before getting pregnant?', 'Why not using ICSI in all IVF procedures? What are its pros and cons?', 'What are my chances of having twins with ICSI?' and 'If my sperm count is zero but I have obtained few sperms with a testicular biopsy, what are my chances of success with ICSI?'.