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Menopur is a drug used in assisted reproduction techniques for controlled ovarian stimulation.
It is a highly purified menotropin (human menopausal gonadotropin, HMG-hP), with follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) and luteinizing hormone (LH) activity. Human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG), a hormone naturally present in the urine of menopausal women, is the major contributor to the LH activity of this drug.
When compared with recombinant gonadotropin products, no differences in safety, purity, or clinical efficacy have been observed.
Embryos for embryo adoption come from other couples who have already completed their reproductive project and who have donated their surplus embryos so that other couples can have children.
These embryos may come from donor eggs or from the woman's own eggs, in which case she must have been under 35 years old when the ovarian puncture was performed. The sperm can come from the man himself or from a sperm donor.
Moreover, as per Law requirements, the parents of the donated embryos must not have any known infectious or genetic disease.
Oligoasthenozoospermia is a cause of male infertility in which two seminal parameters are affected: sperm’s concentration and motility.
We talk of oligoasthenozoospermia when concentration is below 15 million per ml and when there are more than 60% of sperm with altered motility.
Therefore, oligoasthenosperma is considered to be a combination of the oligozoospermia and asthenozoospermia disorders, which aggravates men’s sterile situation.
Achieving a natural pregnancy by men with oligoasthenozoospermia is complicated, although not impossible. If pregnancy was not achieved, couples affected by this pathology should resort to in vitro fertilization (IVF) techniques in order to become parents.
Basically, there are two suitable treatments for these patients: Intra-uterine insemination (IUI) in cases of discreet oligoasthenozoospermia or IVF/ICSI for patients with moderate or severe oligoasthenospermia.
Teratozoospermia is the alteration of sperm morphology, either by presenting defects in their head, intermediate piece, or tail.
According to the World Health Organization (WHO) criteria for 2010, a man has teratozoospermia when more than 96% of his spermatozoa have a strange or abnormal morphology.
There are several causes that provoke alterations in morphology and there are not always easy to diagnose, such as genetic alterations, chemotherapy, testicular disorders, unhealthy lifestyle habits, seminal infections, or pathologies like diabetes mellitus, meningitis, etc...
Some of these factors can cause reversible teratozoospermia, which disappears when the fever, infection, or periods of stress are reversed.
Anti-Müllerian hormone is produced by the preantral and antral follicles of the ovaries throughout a woman's reproductive life.
Specifically, responsible for synthesizing it are the granulosa cells that surround the egg. The measurement of AMH in blood indicates approximately the quantity or number of eggs a woman has, i.e. her ovarian reserve. To complete the information on the ovarian reserve it is necessary to perform a transvaginal ultrasound with an antral follicle count.
It is important to remember that both the AMH and the antral follicle count are quantitative markers and do not provide us with information about egg quality. The parameter that best correlates with the quality of the oocytes is the woman's age.
The assisted reproduction treatment with the highest probability of success would be the one indicated as the most appropriate for each clinical case. In absolute terms, egg donation would be the treatment with the highest success rate, but that does not mean that it is the necessary or indicated treatment for all cases. For this reason, proper diagnosis and good therapeutic guidance are crucial to the success of the assisted reproduction procedure.
HCG is a hormone that is administered 36 hours before egg collection. In some cases, a GnRH analog is administered instead.
These hormones are responsible for facilitating the final process of oocyte maturation and ovulation. It is crucial to administer these hormones at the time indicated by your assisted reproduction specialist, as doing so too early could cause premature ovulation, therefore preventing oocytes recovery when performing the egg collection.
Administering the trigger injection too late could lead to a lack of maturation of the oocytes, which leads to a lower oocyte recovery rate (because part of these cumulus-oocyte complexes will still be adhered to the follicle wall, and therefore will not be recovered in the egg collection) and that the collected oocytes will probably be immature and not suitable thus to be used for the treatment.
We women are born with all the oocytes we will have for life. A process of natural loss of the quantity and quality of oocytes occurs throughout life. This decrease in the quantity and quality of the eggs is more pronounced after 35 years old.
For this reason, after the age of 35, the chances of pregnancy decrease and the probability of miscarriage increases.
There are numerous factors that can cause male infertility as they affect the production and maturation of sperm in the testicles themselves. These lead to low sperm concentration, low sperm mobility, changes in sperm morphology or failure to produce sperm.
The most common causes of male infertility due to the testicular factor include high testicular temperature, toxins, chromosomal defects or testicular diseases.
Embryonic development in the first few days of the embryo's life is very fast. The embryos that follow a normal development, on the third day of life have about 8 cells and, on the fifth day of life, they are already a structure called a blastocyst, which has more than 200 cells, with an internal cell mass (the part that will form the baby) and a trophectoderm (the part that will form the placenta) already defined.
During this development process, a first selection already occurs in the laboratory itself, since not all embryos reach the blastocyst stage. In fact, some embryos that show good characteristics on day 3 do not reach day 5 (they are blocked or their quality is not good enough).
In this sense, we have more information on embryo quality on the 5th day of development and we can better select which embryos are most likely to give an evolving pregnancy. For this reason, the current trend in most assisted reproduction centres is to transfer on the fifth day of development.
No, it's not possible. Embryo cryotransfer is performed in an asynchronous cycle not stimulated with gonadotropins. It can be done with natural cycle in women with very regular periods or with cycles substituted with female hormones.
In case of a substituted cycle, the treatment consists of the administration of an estrogen in the first phase and the association of an estrogen and progesterone in the second phase. Both substances prepare the endometrium for implantation, but have no effect on follicular growth or ovulation. In fact, during a substituted cycle the ovary is slowed down by the effect of the hormones.