A reciprocal translocation is an exchange between fragments of different chromosomes.
In the picture, we can see a balanced translocation, that is, without loss or gain of genetic material. Exchanged material remain intact—the problem is, they are located in the wrong place, as their natural location is the initial chromosome.
Balanced translocations do not have medical relevance, although in some cases they can lead to infertility issues. The individual affected is healthy, but his or her gametes (sperms or eggs) can contain an unbalanced translocation. When the exchange of chromosome material is unequal in embryos, the chances for implantation failure, miscarriage, or congenital physical and/or mental disorders to occur are higher. It depends on the chromosomes or chromosomal regions involved.