By Zaira Salvador BSc, MSc (embryologist).
Last Update: 12/03/2018

Normozoospermia or normospermia is the clinical term used by specialists to refer to normal sperm, that is, without sperm disorders that indicate poor sperm quality or male infertility.

The diagnosis of normozoospermia is normally found at the end of a semen analysis report, the test used to evaluate sperm quality.

For a sperm sample to be considered as normozoospermic, it must be in line with the parameters established by the World Health Organization (WHO) back in year 2010.

Basic semen analysis

A semen analysis or sperm test is the most important fertility test in males. It involves an examination of the sperm sample, which is collected through masturbation, considering the visual appearance of the sample, as well as the number of sperm. This is all possible thanks to the use of a microscope.

Firstly, the lab personnel in charge of collecting the sample examines it macroscopically, evaluating the following parameters:

  • Liquefaction time
  • Volume
  • Color
  • Viscosity
  • pH

After this first step, a more thorough, microscopic analysis is performed, where parameters associated with sperm cells themselves and other microscopic cells are considered, including:

All these parameters provide information on seminal quality as well as on the potential sperm disorders causing infertility in the male, if any.

Considering seeing a fertility specialist? Don't forget that, in the field of Reproductive Medicine, as in any other medical area, it is crucial that patients rely on the doctors and staff that will help them through their treatment cycle. Logically, conditions vary from clinic to clinic. For this reason, we recommend that you generate your Fertility Report now. It will offer you a list of clinics that have passed our rigorous selection process successfully. Furthermore, the system will make a comparison between the fees and conditions of each clinic so that you can make a better-informed decision.

Reference values

When the semen analysis report is ready, the results should be compared to the reference values to find out if they are normal or not.

Reference values were published by the WHO in 2010 after studying the semen parameters of over 1900 fertile males.

Particularly, to ensure a man has normozoospermia, and therefore everything is okay at least with sperm parameters, the results should come back with results that are equal to or above the following values:

Volume
1.5 ml
Count
15 million per ml, or 39 million in total per ejaculate
Motility
40% of sperm are motile, or 32% have progressive motility
Morphology
4% of sperm are normal
Vitality
58% of live sperm

These values correspond to reference limits for sperm parameters. In other words, it means that, for a man to be considered fertile or normozoospermic, his results must be above these figures.

Other parameters

Although sperm parameters explained in previous sections are the most important ones to determine sperm quality, there exist others related to the semen and its components that can provide us with substantial information, too.

For example, the color of a normal semen sample must be yellow to grey. If it is too transparent, it might indicate the presence of an infection. Moreover, viscosity should not be too high.

As for pH, it should range between 7 and 8. pH variations may indicate the presence of an infection as well.

Finally, the presence of leukocytes or white blood cells (WBCs) should be equal to or fewer than 1 million per milliliter to dismiss potential issues with spermatogenesis (sperm production process) or infections.

FAQs from users

Can oligozoospermia go away on its own and result in normozoospermia?

By Zaira Salvador BSc, MSc (embryologist).

Yes. Sperm quality varies quite often and is dependent on lifestyle factors. It is likely that stress or the flu affect spermatogenesis, and the results of a semen analysis report appear altered, including problems of oligozoospermia, asthenozoospermia, etc.

The good news is that a man can recover his fertility within 3 months if the cause of infertility is improved or disappears. A balanced diet, doing sports, and quitting toxic habits can contribute to improving sperm quality to a large extent.

Is normozoospermia possible with increased viscosity levels?

By Zaira Salvador BSc, MSc (embryologist).

Viscosity is more related to the composition of the semen than with spermatozoa themselves. Even though high viscosity levels rarely cause male infertility, it might be associated with sperm motility issues. For this reason, it should be taken into account when performing a semen analysis.

Moreover, too high viscosity levels are associated with prostate complications

Can I get my wife pregnant with normozoospermia?

By Zaira Salvador BSc, MSc (embryologist).

In principle, yes. As explained above, normozoospermia means normal sperm, which is considered the ideal scenario to conceive according to the WHO’s guidelines.

A man with good sperm quality is someone whose sperm are able to travel through the female reproductive tract and reach the egg.

In spite of that, it is possible for sperm to carry DNA abnormalities that cannot be detected through a basic semen analysis. In that case, in spite of being normozoospermic, fertilization or implantation failure could take place.

Suggested for you

If you have just done a semen analysis and have doubts as regards how to interpret the results, this article can be helpful: Sperm Test Results Explained – Interpretation & Normal Values.

Also, if you are considering examining your fertility, you might be interested in getting an overall idea about the tests and exams you might be required with this comprehensive guide: Male Fertility Testing – How Do You Know if You Are Infertile?

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References

Bartoov B, Eltes F, Pansky M, Lederman H, Caspi E, Soffer Y. Estimating fertility potential via semen analysis data. Hum Reprod 1993;8:65 – 70.

Check JH, Bollendorf A, Press M, Blue T. Standard sperm morphology as a predictor of male fertility potential. Arch Androl 1992;28:39 – 41.

Chia SE, Tay SK, Lim ST. What constitutes a normal seminal analysis? Semen parameters of 243 fertile men. Hum Reprod 1998;13:3394–3398.

Coetzee K, Kruger TF, Lombard CJ. Predictive value of normal sperm morphology: a structured literature review. Hum Reprod Update 1998; 4:73 – 82.

Guzick DS, Overstreet JW, Factor-Litvak P, Brazil CK, Nakajima S, Coutifaris C, Carson SA, Cisneros P, Steinkampf MP, Hill JA et al. Sperm morphology, motility, and concentration in fertile and infertile men. N Engl J Med 2001;345:1388 – 1393.

MacLeod J, Wang Y. Male fertility potential in terms of semen quality: a review of the past, a study of the present. Fertil Steril 1979;31: 103 – 116.

Macomber D, Sanders MD. The spermatozoa count: its value in the diagnosis, prognosis and concentration in fertile and infertile men. N Engl J Med 1929;200:981 – 984.

Trevor G. Cooper, et al. World Health Organization reference values for human semen characteristics. Human Reproduction Update, Vol.16, No.3 pp. 231–245, 2010.

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Authors and contributors

 Zaira Salvador
BSc, MSc
Embryologist
Bachelor's Degree in Biotechnology from the Polytechnic University of Valencia (UPV). Embryologist specializing in Assisted Procreation, with a Master's Degree in Biotechnology of Human Assisted Reproduction from the University of Valencia (UV) and the Valencian Infertility Institute (IVI). More information
License: 3185-CV
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