When a semen analysis confirms the total absence of sperm in the semen, the next step is to perform a thorough physical exploration of the testicles. It will allow the specialist to determine if there is sperm production or not. Moreover, a male hormone check will be done to assess the activity of the testicles.
Even though these tests can indicate secretory azoospermia, only a testicular biopsy or epididymal sperm aspiration can help to determine whether there is sperm production.
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