Artificial insemination is an assisted reproduction treatment in which a semen sample previously prepared in the laboratory is introduced into the uterus to obtain the best seminal fraction.
Prior to the insemination process, it is necessary to produce the growth of 1 or more follicles in the ovaries. This process can be carried out by stimulating the ovaries with hormones that act on the follicles or in a natural cycle, thanks to the physiological functioning of the ovary without the need for medication (in these cases it is normal that there is only one follicle growing, which can reduce the success rate of the technique).
Thanks to the hormonal action of the ovaries which secrete a hormone called estradiol, the endometrium, which is the innermost layer of the uterus, will also develop. The endometrium is the place where the pregnancy will be lodged and that is why it is of vital importance that it has favorable characteristics for the future implantation of the embryo.
Due to the action of estradiol secreted by the ovaries, the endometrium will progressively increase in thickness, at the same time as the ovarian follicles develop. Likewise, it will change in appearance, becoming trilaminar just before ovulation. After ovulation, and thanks to the action of the progestesterone also produced in the ovaries, the endometrium will change its appearance, ceasing to be trilaminar to favor future pregnancy.