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To differentiate between these two situations, it is necessary to perform a series of simple medical check-ups: a blood test to check hormone levels, as well as a physical examination to determine if the woman has any clear signs of hyperandrogenism.
Briefly, it consists of detecting the amplification of the CGG repeat in DNA samples obtained from peripheral blood using a test called PCR (Polymerase Chain Reaction).
This test is the most reliable method that exists to determine if the individual is a carrier of the premutation or the full mutation and what risk they have of transmitting it to their offspring.
Fortunately, this syndrome does not affect the longevity of the people who suffer from it, since it has been proven that they have an average life span similar to that of the non-diseased population.
Yes, through tests such as amniocentesis it is possible to predict, before birth, whether or not the fetus will have the disease.
The truth is, there is no treatment better than other, since in both cases the survival rate after the thaw procedure is above 90% and the quality of both eggs and embryos is usually the same.
The decision between one option or the other depends on your personal decision and the advice of your doctor. If you are single at the moment of vitrification, you might wish to opt for egg vitrification only.
Yes, having annoying symptoms is normal at this stage of pregnancy, not only because labor is getting closer, but because the pregnancy itself is becoming very uncomfortable.
It is normal if you feel pressure and pain in the pelvic area and the vagina due to the descent of the fetus to the birth canal. Nonetheless, in case you have very abnormal symptoms, or if pain is unbearable, you should visit your doctor as soon as possible.
A prolonged or post-term pregnancy is a pregnancy that lasts longer than 42 weeks. The main risks include:
- Aging of the placenta
- If the placenta becomes too old, the supply of nutrients and oxygen to the baby decreases, which can affect his health severely.
- Neonatal aspiration of meconium
- If the pregnancy lasts too long, the baby may expel the meconium to the amniotic fluid. As a consequence, it can end up entering his lungs, which can cause inflammation of the fetal lungs. This is the reason why you should pay special attention to the color and consistency of your water in case of membrane rupture.
- Fetal macrosomia
- If the baby is too large, vaginal delivery might not be possible, forcing the doctor to schedule a C-section.
Inducing labor is totally unadvisable unless medically indicated. Even if you are more than 40 weeks pregnant and your baby is still in your belly, you have to let your pregnancy continue unless otherwise determined by your doctor. However, in post-term or prolonged pregnancies, labor is typically induced to prevent problems in the baby and/or the mother.
Yes, it is possible that you have a type of contractions called Braxton-Hicks contractions. In fact, some women start having them from month 5. These contractions are typically so mild that most pregnant women do not even notice them. Their function is to prepare the body for labor.
He or she is likely to have moved into an anterior position, that is, with the legs bent, the knees close to the chest, and the arms folded. Inside the uterus, he might not have the head down yet, which is the ideal position for labor. Usually, babies settle into this position from week 32-34, although it varies from pregnancy to pregnancy.
Long journeys at such an advanced gestational age are not advisable, not only due to the risks associated for both the mother and the fetus, but just because of the number of discomforts for the pregnant woman.
Most airlines require pregnant women to present a medical certificate stating that she is in good condition for traveling. In any case, whether you are traveling by plane or not, you should ask your doctor previously.
Yes. As a matter of fact, month 6 is a good moment for women to undergo this test. As explained above, the baby has a more human-like physical appearance by this time
Obviously, at this gestational age, sleeping face down is impossible. We recommend that you sleep on one side, especially the left side, which eases blood supply to the fetus. Sleeping with your legs bent, using a pillow between them if necessary, is usually the solution for women who suffer from swollen legs during pregnancy.
Pregnant women are one of the risks groups that should get vaccinated for the flu. Although the most advisable is to get the flu shot during the second trimester of pregnancy, there is no problem at all if you do it at month 8 or any time as long as your doctor agrees.
Bleeding during pregnancy is not a worrying sign in all cases. However, it is a rare situation in the final stages of pregnancy. For this reason, if you experience a bleeding at 7 months, we strongly recommend that you visit your doctor as soon as possible.
Having white vaginal discharge by the end of month 8 is a common symptom. It is usually derived from the mucus plug, which is eliminated due to the fetus pressing the area after settling into a head down position in the womb. Nonetheless, the mucus plus keeps on regenerating until the baby is ready for being born.
Actually, there is no average weight range for this gestational age, as each woman has a different weight based on their body complexion. Nonetheless, according to experts, most pregnant women will have gained between 6 to 8 kg by this stage of pregnancy.
This is just an approximate range. As explained earlier, each body and pregnancy is different, and so their progression.
This stage of pregnancy characterizes for the fact that the baby starts moving vigorously. However, each pregnancy is different and fetal development does not always follow the same pattern. In any case, we suggest that you visit your doctor and tell him or her about these symptoms to see if it is a sign that something is not going as it should.
With 5 months of pregnancy, abortion is possible only if the pregnancy is a life-threatening factor for the woman or compromises her health severely. Also, if developmental abnormalities that are incompatible with life are detected in the fetus. A pregnancy can be terminated for these reasons up until week 22.
For a voluntary termination of pregnancy to be free of risks can be performed only until week 14.
Potential risks or complications associated with this trimester of pregnancy are:
- Gestational diabetes
- Urinary tract infections
- High blood pressure
- Threatened miscarriage
- Sudden birth
Yes. In fact, from the 5th month onwards, you are likely to feel Braxton-Hicks contractions, which help your body to get ready for childbirth. Their intensity increases progressively as the pregnancy progresses and can become more frequent during the final weeks. They are different from birth contraction because they appear at this stage of pregnancy, occur often as an isolated event, and are painless.
No. In the past, the results of LH levels were used as a criterion to diagnose a woman with PCOS. However, since too high LH levels are not an indicator of PCOS in all cases, this criterion was dismissed finally.
Diet and physical exercise to lose weight are general recommendations in cases of PCOS where, additionally, the woman is overweight. If you are already on your weight, you do not need to start a weight loss diet plan. In fact, losing weight can even worsen the situation.
Although symptoms can vary from woman to woman, given the variety of symptoms associated with PCOS, hirsutism is present in almost 80 percent of the cases. In most women, androgen levels are too high, which causes this peculiar side effect.
In this case, the chances of having a multiple pregnancy do not rise due to PCOS, since it depends on the number of embryos transferred.
If a woman with PCOS undergoes a different treatment, namely timed intercourse or intrauterine insemination, the risk of multiple pregnancy would increase, though. In these cases, it is not possible to monitor the exact number of eggs released.
A pregnancy is a natural physiological state that generates insulin resistance. Insulin, due to the many changes induced by the pregnancy, becomes less effective and the organism needs to produce it in higher amounts for glucose to be effectively absorbed.
On the other hand, insulin resistance is a common symptom of PCOS. So, if both situations occur simultaneously (pregnancy and PCOS), the chances for the woman to develop gestational diabetes or type II diabetes in the future increase.
Having polycystic ovaries does not mean that you will end up developing Polycystic Ovary Syndrome (PCOS) in the future. Nonetheless, if you develop other types of hormone irregularities, you are more likely to develop PCOS.
Simply put, the fact that your ovaries have multiple follicles does not mean you are going to have PCOS by default.
The most common homeopathic treatment used for PCOS is vitex. This medicinal herbs is a home remedy that has been traditionally used to level off hormone levels, avoid irregular menstrual periods, and reestablish ovulation.
Women with PCOS are recommended to take between 150 and 200 g of vitex daily for at least 3 or 4 months for it to be effective.
To determine if the presence of multiple cysts is affecting your fertility, you need to visit a doctor to run a series of tests: a blood test to check your hormone levels, as well as a physical exploration to look for potential signs of hyperandrogenism.
Normally, treatment with clomiphene is typically used for 2 to 6 months. If ovulation has not occurred during this time period, we recommend that you change to another protocol.
According to experts, once the patient achieves pregnancy, treatment with metformin should be immediately stopped, except in particular cases where the doctor determines that it should be continued.
No, this option is not a viable one presently. Although the results of a number of scientific studies have confirmed the presence of a genetic factor that is highly associated with PCOS, the particular genes causing this endocrine disorder are still unknown.
Obviously, it is necessary that the woman has gone through menarche, that is, the first occurrence of menstruation. Nonetheless, this disorder is typically detected at ages 25 to 30 due to the high number of fertility problems associated and the difficulties it causes in women of childbearing age to get pregnant.
Hirsutism appears as a consequence of high androgen levels in blood. One of the functions of androgens, such as testosterone, is to grow hair in sites that are more typical of men. If the levels of these hormones are too elevated, it is normal that the woman has more hair than usual.
Yes, varicocele can lead to infertility in males. This condition has various levels of severity (from mild to severe), each one directly proportional to the degree of infertility. It can cause sperm disorders and hormone imbalances.
In the final weeks of pregnancy, it is normal that you experience an increase in the amount of vaginal discharge due to pressure of the fetus over the vaginal tract. However, if the discharge expelled is too thick and abundant, it might be the mucus plug. In such case, we recommend that you ask your doctor as soon as possible.
Yes. Normally, when a woman is nine months pregnant, the most likely is that the baby is already stuck in the pelvis. However, if that is not the case, it is convenient to schedule a C-section before the sac breaks and labor contractions start.
The movements of the unborn baby tend to slow down as the pregnancy progresses due to insufficient room in the uterus. However, if fetal activity stops totally, we recommend that you visit your doctor at once.
Keeping in mind that your baby is almost complete, at this stage he or she will be accumulating baby fat. For this reason, you should eat foods that are high in fiber, calcium, iron, vitamin C and A, and folic acid. Since your baby needs to add on weight during these days, it is recommended that you make your meals a little bigger in quantity.
Yes, varicocele can be a cause of male infertility. This pathology can present in different degrees of affection. Therefore, its harmful effect on male fertility (mainly causes seminal and hormonal alterations) can be from mild to severe.
It depends on the degree of the condition, the more severe it is, the more likely the adhesions will reappear in the patient.
The cost of this diagnostic technique varies from clinic to clinic. The approximate costs are $800 in which costs for fertility medication and endometrial biopsy are not included.
Yes, it has been scientifically proven that those men with a body mass index higher than 30 have a worse seminal quality and, therefore, present greater difficulties to achieve a natural pregnancy.
In fact, men with excess weight tend to have low levels of androgens, such as testosterone, the hormone responsible for regulating the formation of sperm in the testicles. As a consequence of this decrease in male sex hormones, spermatogenesis is affected and oligozoospermia may appear.
Yes, cesarean section may be a reason for intrauterine adhesions to develop because it is a surgical procedure that requires healing after the incisions made to extract the baby.
It depends on the source of the male's reproductive problems. For example, if the infertility is due to a genetic factor it is not possible to reverse it, but if the infertility is due to an obstruction in the vas deferens or to the taking of a medication that is affecting sperm production, surgical treatment can be applied or the medication can be abandoned, respectively.
A good rest, a balanced diet and moderate sport practice help to improve stress levels. If we find ourselves in times of many nerves, we can see altered blood circulation and hormonal function that are so important for good endometrial development.
On a pharmacological level, the growth of the endometrium can also be improved by applying hormones. However, this treatment must always be supervised by a specialist.
Yes, it is possible to carry out a fertility treatment for a male factor through the public health system as long as the requirements (age, previous children) established by the corresponding health system are satisfied.
The presence of intrauterine adhesions seriously compromises the fact that a pregnancy can develop normally. To do this, it is necessary to remove the tissues before the woman becomes pregnant.
It is possible that blood clots retained by the adhesions can be evacuated retrograde into the abdominal cavity, landing on the tubes or ovaries and forming cysts. Suffering from Asherman syndrome may be a reason to develop endometriosis, as the retrograde menstruation mechanism results precisely from it.
No, unfortunately, the endometrial receptivity test is not always the solution to cases of implantation failure.
On certain occasions it is discovered, thanks to the ERA test, that the patient's implantation window is displaced and therefore a poor endometrial receptivity was the cause of the failure. However, there are many other cases that are not due to the fact that the transfer is being performed at an inappropriate time in the cycle.
The causes of implantation failure can be very different, and not all of them can be identified with the endometrial receptivity test.
The average price of egg vitrification is usually between $10,000 and $18,000. However, it still depends on each fertility center. It should also be taken into account that hormonal medication for ovarian stimulation is not included in this budget and can cost between 500 and $1,000. Finally, after the first or second year of freezing, fertility clincis usually require that a maintenance fee of around $ 5-600 per year be paid for the frozen eggs.
As this is a hormonal treatment, there may be some fluid retention that makes us feel bloated for the duration of the treatment. However, the side effects of the treatment are very variable among women. In any case, the symptoms derived from this treatment are attenuated when it is abandoned.
Evopad is not always used in endometrial preparation during IVF treatments. There are many other commercial brands as well as other types of medication for the exogenous supply of estrogens, such as oral administration.
No, it is completely inadvisable to use Evopad if you are pregnant.
The price of Evopad depends on the dose of estradiol supplied. For example, Evopad 25 costs between $37.00 and 51.28$ whereas Evopad 50 is $45.00. The price of Evopad 100 is at approximately $172.00.
No, prostatitis is not a contagious disease and is not considered a sexually transmitted disease. However, inflammation of the prostate can be a symptom of an STD.
In principle, there is no problem in having sexual relations, since this pathology does not prevent it physiologically speaking. The possibility of maintaining them will depend on the degree of illness suffered by the man as a result of the infection.
There is no clinical evidence that prostatitis causes impairment of erection, since this gland participates in ejaculation but not in erection.
Achieving an erection does not depend on the functioning of the prostate, but on good vasodilation and correct functioning of the nervous and hormonal systems in men.
Although its effect is less evident, stress can cause prostatitis, especially in asymptomatic cases where the infection is not derived from a pathogenic organism.
During stressful times there is a tendency to increase muscle tension which can affect the pelvic floor area and encourage urine retention.
Although discomfort may occur when urinating, no, prostatitis is not the same as a urinary tract infection. Prostatitis affects the prostate, while a urinary tract infection affects the urinary tract.
Prostatitis is the most common urogenital infection in men. Although it is common in middle-aged men, it can also occur in young men.
From a later age the most common prostatic complaint is usually benign enlargement of the prostate.