Celiac women on a gluten-free diet have the same pregnancy rates as the general population.
However, it has been observed that untreated celiac patients may have late menarche, early menopause, secondary amenorrhea.
These patients are more at risk of developing spontaneous miscarriages, recurrent miscarriages and, if they do achieve gestation, of having preterm deliveries and newborns with lower birth weight.
Infertility in untreated celiac women is related to malabsorption of minerals such as iron and deficiency of vitamins such as folic acid, vitamin D and B12.
A deficit of zinc and/or selenium implies an alteration in the synthesis and secretion of luteinizing hormone (LH) and follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), and folic acid is essential for the metabolism of nucleic acids and for the neuronal development of the embryo. Its deficiency can cause alterations at both levels.