The risk of testicular cancer is 3 to 10 times higher in patients with cryptorchidism than in patients with normodescent testes, and surgical intervention to lower the testicles (orchidopexy) does not prevent future malignancy. The need for follow-up in these patients is emphasized, and removal of the testicle (orchiectomy) is recommended in post-pubertal patients.
The highest risk cases are those in which the testicle has remained inside the abdomen. The lowest risk cases are those in which the testicle was already in the groin canal, almost in the pouch, and which have undergone surgery.
It is important to diagnose the disease early. To do this, testicular self-examination should be performed, palpating the testicles in search of nodules. It is recommended to visit the family doctor or urologist once a year to perform an analysis of tumor markers that can give the alarm signal of a tumor at birth. On many occasions an abnormal result may appear without there being a tumor, so the analysis should be repeated after a few weeks and, if the abnormality persists, an ultrasound scan of the testicles should be requested.