Early menopause or early ovarian failure consists of the cessation of ovarian activity below the age of 40. It occurs in about 1% of women. In most cases, 63% of cases, as indicated by the Spanish Association for the Study of Menopause, the cause is unknown.
It should be remembered that, in patients with normal karyotypes, between 10 and 20% of cases will recover ovarian function. It is possible that, after having achieved pregnancy through the transfer of an embryo from a cycle of receiving donated oocytes, a new gestation may occur this time after the restoration of the ovarian cycle itself.
The second most common cause of early ovarian failure is genetics. Chromosomal alterations related to the X chromosome or alterations of point genes also in the X chromosome, such as the premutation of the FMRI gene, can lead to early ovarian failure. There are also described mutations in genes located on chromosomes other than the X that can cause this pathology.
Other causes of premature ovarian failure are: chemotherapy or radiotherapy treatments in women with cancer processes, endometriosis, metabolic or autoimmune diseases or infections.
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