A cyst is a medical concept that refers to a cavity in the body filled with fluid, and which has a capsule around it. It is a tumor with liquid content.
The word cyst, widely used in the general population, does not refer to a specific pathology, it is merely a description of a lesion. When the gynecologist observes the presence of a cyst, he/she must, by means of anamnesis, examination, ultrasound, and other complementary tests, arrive at a specific diagnosis of the pathology and propose the necessary treatment (if any).
Basically, cysts can be divided into:
- Functional cysts
- are cysts caused by abnormal functioning of the ovarian cycle. Usually, these cysts disappear in the following months. In turn, functional cysts are classified into persistent follicle, hemorrhagic follicle and unruptured luteinized follicle.
- Non-functional cysts
- In and of themselves, these cysts involve pathology. These are cysts that give rise to endometriosis, serous or mucinous cystadenoma, i.e., a benign tumor in the ovary, teratoma and ovarian abscess.
- Malignant tumors
- Ovarian cancer is a lesion that often has a cystic appearance or component. There are several criteria that will generate suspicion in the physician. A cyst that has the slightest suspicion of malignancy should be intervened in all cases. The pathological anatomy is the final test that will define the malignancy of the lesion.
It should be noted that the misnamed polycystic ovary is not a pathology that produces cysts.