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ART Reproduccion Support Group

Fertility Support Group
This clinic is part of the Fertility Support Group Program.
Health Center approved by the Spanish Ministry of Health - License number (CNN): 1601000645

Get Answers from ART Reproduccion

Can the cervix change its shape or position?
By Jon Ander Agirregoikoa. Last Update: 08/31/2023

There are biological differences in the cervix between women, which may cause the cervix to have a different shape or position.

Before pregnancy the cervix is normally rigid and closed. During pregnancy it becomes softer and will decrease in length to facilitate dilatation at the time of delivery.

In women who have not given birth it usually has a pointed appearance and in women who have given birth it is more open.

The position may also vary depending on the position of the uterus or if the uterus has fibroids that may displace it.

What is the status of the embryo in the third week of pregnancy?
By Jon Ander Agirregoikoa. Last Update: 09/07/2022

At the beginning of the third week of pregnancy there is ovulation and fertilization. The woman has not missed her period so she will not know that she is pregnant.

On the first day, at 16-20h post-fertilization, the zygote appears. On day two, the embryo has four cells, day three eight and day fourteen, at this moment it is called a morula. The fifth day follows the increase in cells and is called a blastocyst.

On the sixth-seventh day the embryo reaches the uterus and begins its adhesion to the endometrium, implantation. Normally the woman during this week does not have any symptoms.

What are the advantages and disadvantages of ICSI over IVF?
By Aitziber Domingo Bilbao. Last Update: 08/29/2022

Both techniques are reproductive technologies, and as such, we cannot say that one is better than the other. Actually, it depends on the diagnosis of each couple.

In the case of conventional IVF, we put the oocyte in contact with a determined concentration of sperm, so that the sperm itself fertilizes the egg, which resembles natural fertilization to a large extent.

In many cases, sperm quality is altered, in which case using the sperm won't be possible. In such situations, we use ICSI. It consists in microinjecting the sperm, which is subjectively selected by the embryologists, into the oocyte.

In treatments using the ROPA method, is the sperm donor chosen according to the physical characteristics of the genetic mother or the pregnant woman?
By Jon Ander Agirregoikoa. Last Update: 08/11/2022

In the semen request, the characteristics of both women are collected. Normally, the sperm is chosen according to the woman who is going to gestate the pregnancy because the other member of the couple already provides her genetic material in the oocyte she gives to her partner.

Which one do you recommend in patients with HIV? IUI or IVF?
By Aitziber Domingo Bilbao. Last Update: 08/11/2022

When a man is affected by HIV, the first thing we would do is wash the semen sample, which removes the seminal plasma, so that the sample contains spermatozoa only. Thanks to this technique, we are able to remove the virus from semen samples. After the washing, we examine the sample to detect copies of the virus using the PCR (Polymerase Chain Reaction) test. If the PCR is negative or the number of copies is low, the sample can be used for a fertility treatment. In this cases, we recommend patients to choose ICSI, as a sperm washing affects the sperm count and motility.

Is it possible to get the medications needed on my health insurance?
By José Luis de Pablo. Last Update: 07/27/2022

In in Spain, the medication needed for your IVF treatment is covered by the social security only when the whole treatment is also covered in the same way. If you attend a private assisted reproduction clinic you will have to pay for the medication.

In the US, health insurance rarely covers the costs of the medication and you will have to pay for them.

In the UK, the NHS may cover part of the cost of the medication, but only if the treatment is being paid for by the NHS. If you are receiving private treatment then you will have to pay them separately.

How do GnRH antagonists affect endometrial receptivity?
By Jon Ander Agirregoikoa. Last Update: 03/16/2022

The comparison of protocols with GnRH agonists and antagonists and their relationship to the impact on endometrial receptivity remain controversial. However, some studies have provided evidence that both GnRH agonists and antagonists slightly affect endometrial receptivity compared to natural cycles.

In contrast, other studies have suggested that antagonist protocols have a strong impact on the expression of related genes in human endometrial receptivity, as well as that agonists cause delay in this process.

Why do ectopic pregnancies occur?
By Jon Ander Agirregoikoa. Last Update: 01/19/2022

Ectopic pregnancy occurs when the embryo implants outside the endometrial cavity. When this happens, in most cases, the implantation occurs in the fallopian tube, although it can also be seen in other locations such as the ovary, cervix and even the abdomen.

There are different factors that increase the risk of this occurring: history of pelvic inflammatory disease, previous ectopic pregnancy, previous cesarean section, endometriosis, IUD, contraceptives with only gestagens, postcoital pill and assisted reproduction techniques.

What is the cause of teratozoospermia?
By Jon Ander Agirregoikoa. Last Update: 12/21/2021

Teratozoospermia is an abnormality affecting male semen in which most sperm are abnormally shaped.

Because of their poor morphology, sperm cannot fertilize the egg and cause sterility.

The causes of teratozoospermia are:

  • Genetic alterations
  • Chemotherapy and radiation therapy
  • Seminal infections and orchitis
  • Testicular trauma
  • Varicocele
  • Fever
  • Diabetes Mellitus and meningitis
  • Tobacco, alcohol, drugs
  • Bad eating habits, toxic, tight clothing...

There are some causes that can be solved (fever, quitting tobacco, healthy habits...) so that the problem in some cases would be reversible.

Can I know which woman or couple my embryos go to if I donate them to other patients?
By José Luis de Pablo. Last Update: 09/28/2021

One of the possibilities within the Informed Consent is to donate your embryos to another patient/s for reproductive purposes. These embryos become part of the Centre's own embryo bank. The donation of embryos will be made by the Centre to the recipient patient/couple, who will be reminded of the free, secret and anonymous nature of embryo donation and its nature as a voluntary, altruistic and disinterested act. Likewise, in your case, you will not be able to know to whom the embryos have been donated.

What are spermatic or ejaculatory ducts?
By Jon Ander Agirregoikoa. Last Update: 09/26/2018

The sperm ducts are made up of the epididymis, the vas deferens, the ejaculatory ducts and the man's urethra. They constitute a set of ducts whose function is to liberate the spermatozoa to the outside by means of ejaculation.

Is tubal ligation reversal effective when it comes to getting pregnant?
By Jon Ander Agirregoikoa. Last Update: 09/26/2018

Tubal ligation consists of preventing the passage of sperm into the tubes, thus preventing fertilization.

The reversal of tubal ligation is not always satisfactory, the factors that may influence are age, time since surgery, and the technique used. In women under 34 years can reach 70% of pregnancies.

Another important factor is the length of the tube after surgery, which must be more than 4 cm.

We can consider reversing a tubal ligation in women under 34 years old and with a residual tube longer than 4 cm.

What is the purpose of Orgalutran?
By Jon Ander Agirregoikoa. Last Update: 09/26/2018

It is a "gonadotropin-releasing hormone antagonist" drug and acts against the action of this hormone (GnRH) produced by our hypothalamus.

Orgalutran is used to prevent the premature release of LH, which can cause spontaneous ovulation. It is used in IVF cycles to prevent ovulation because without its effect the risk of ovulation is high and would produce a significant reduction in the number of eggs retrieved in a follicular puncture.

What symptoms are common during the 2WW?
By Jon Ander Agirregoikoa. Last Update: 09/26/2018

Anything can happen during 2WW. Since not noticing any symptoms to begin to feel the typical symptoms of pregnancy: tiredness, nausea, abdominal discomfort like menstruation... Sometimes you can even bleed a little.

Is Klinefelter syndrome a genetic disease?
By José Luis de Pablo. Last Update: 09/21/2018

Klinefelter syndrome or 47,XXY is a genetic abnormality that occurs as a consequence of an incorrect division of homologous chromosomes during meiosis, which give raise to the gametes of one of the parents. It can also occur during the first divisions of the zygote.

Males affected by it suffer from hypogonadotropic hypogonadism, gynecomastia, learning disabilities, and infertility. It is the most common genetic disease in males. Some men, however, do not have symptoms, and they don't know that they have this condition until they are adults and have infertility issues.

Is a zygote a fertilized egg?
By Aitziber Domingo Bilbao. Last Update: 09/21/2018

An egg is the female reproductive cell, which is fertilized by the male reproductive cell, that is, the sperm. Gametes are haploid cells (23 chromosomes), that is, they have half the number of chromosomes than other cells, which are diploid (46 chromosomes). The fusion between both reproductive cells (male and female) gives raise to a zygote (diploid cell, 46 chromosomes), in which we can find a female pronucleus (23 chromosomes) and a male pronucleus (23 chromosomes).

How do I know if I have hypospadias?
By José Luis de Pablo. Last Update: 09/21/2018

Hypospadias is a birth defect that affects male babies. With this conditions, the urinary meatus is located in a place other than the external urethral orifice, such as the scrotum. There exist various types of hypospadias, from mild to most severe.

I have a history of recurrent miscarriage, when should the embryo transfer be done in my case?
By José Luis de Pablo. Last Update: 09/21/2018

The fact that a woman has had repeated miscarriages in the past has nothing to do with the day of the embryo transfer. In most of the cases, it is associated with the chromosomes of the embryos. Keeping this in mind, ideally the best treatment option in these cases would be IVF with PGD (Preimplantation Genetic Diagnosis). With PGD, we examine 6-8 cells of each embryo. It allows us to find out which embryos are genetically norma and which don't.

What are the success rates with blastocyst embryo culture?
By José Luis de Pablo. Last Update: 09/13/2018

By blastocyst culture we refer to keeping the embryos in the incubator until day 5-6 of development, that is, until they reach blastocyst stage. By doing this, we perform a much more thorough embryo selection process. The fact they they are capable of making it to blastocyst means that they have a greater implantation potential, as it was able to stay longer in the lab. Pregnancy success rates depend on age, though.