The term "cervicitis" means inflammation of the cervix. Clinically, women with cervicitis show an erythematous, edematous, and friable cervix.
The causes of inflammation of the cervix can be multiple: a vaginal infection (bacterial vaginosis, candidiasis, etc.), an allergic reaction (use of intimate hygiene products, spermicides, etc.), or a sexually transmitted disease (chlamydia, gonorrhea, or others).
To treat cervicitis, it is important to determine the cause of the cervicitis in order to provide a targeted treatment. Usually, specialists request a vaginal culture and an endocervical culture.
The vaginal culture will be used to establish if there is any vaginal infection that may be altering the normal vaginal flora. Alterations in the vaginal microflora can modify the endometrial microbiome. Recent studies reveal that alterations in the endometrial microbiome may influence embryo implantation potential.
The endometrial microbiome is the set of microorganisms that inhabit the inner layer of the uterus (endometrium) and play an important role in the proper functioning of the uterus. It seems that for proper reproductive functioning the endometrial microbiome must be dominated by bacteria of the Lactobacillus group. In the event of an imbalance in the endometrial microbiota, either because of infection (endometritis) or because of inadequate growth of some strain of non-Lactobacillus microorganisms, this could lead to a reduction in the implantation potential of the endometrium.
Colonization of the uterine cavity mainly comes from bacteria that ascend from the vagina. If in the vaginal culture we find any alteration (Gardenella vaginalis, candida albicans, etc.), it is advisable to treat it so that this infection does not ascend to the uterine cavity and cause an imbalance of the endometrial flora, thus altering the implantation capacity of the endometrium.
On the other hand, the endocervical culture will allow us to rule out some sexually transmitted diseases, basically diseases caused by Chlamydia, M. genitalium and N. gonorrhea. Infections by these bacteria can ascend through the cervix and uterus and finally affect the fallopian tubes. When an infection affects the internal genitalia (uterus and appendages) we speak of "pelvic inflammatory disease". If the infection reaches the fallopian tubes, there is an inflammatory reaction of the walls of the fallopian tubes which can end with the formation of adhesions (scarring) and obstructions at the level of the tubes.
Thus, the presence of cervicitis should lead us to rule out possible sterility secondary to tubal pathology.