The Russian Law governing medically assisted reproduction is called “Federal law on public health protection” of November 2011.
It establishes no restriction regarding the nationality or place of residence of the people undergoing fertility treatments.
Nevertheless, same-sex couples, whether they are female or male, are not allowed to undergo any of these assisted reproduction techniques.
As for age limits to access a fertility treatment, there exists no specific legal restriction. Many clinics do not allow women older than 50 to access assisted conception, though.
IVF with donor eggs
In vitro fertilization using donor eggs involves using the eggs of a young donor in order to fertilize them in the lab—either through IVF or ICSI. The aim is to transfer a maximum of 3 embryos out of the ones that have made it to day 3 or 5 after fertilization.
Different types of egg donation can be found within Russia:
- Altruistic donation
- Paid or commercial donation
- Anonymous donation
- Non-anonymous donation (the egg or sperm donor must be a close friend or relative)
- Double donation (both donor eggs and donor sperm)
Besides, Russia allows the cryopreservation and storage of gametes, embryos, and human reproductive tissue. Thanks to it, they can be used for future fertility cycles.
Preimplantation Genetic Diagnosis (PGD)
Preimplantation Genetic Diagnosis (PGD) is a procedure by which a single embryo cell is analyzed once the embryo has been created through in vitro fertilization. PGD is use to check whether there exists some genetic abnormality known to be associated with a severe condition.
In this sense, if the embryo presents some genetic abnormality, a healthier embryo will be selected, thereby leaving the affected embryo non-transferred.
Egg donors are young and healthy women whom have been thoroughly pre-screened before being accepted into the egg donation program.
However, some intended parents have a preference for performing a PGD to the embryos created from donor embryos in order to make sure it is free from any genetic disorder.
Gender selection is not allowed in Russia, except in duly justified exceptional cases where there is some risk of transmitting a sex-linked disease to offspring.
Since PGD is a technology that involves certain risks, performing it only when the medical team of the fertility center finds it strictly necessary is crucial.
Surrogacy in Russia
Surrogacy is allowed in Russia, and the woman who surrogates her uterus can be compensated for carrying the pregnancy to term—i.e. commercial surrogacy.
This is a widely used technique among women with uterine problems or whose uterus is absent; in other words, women who are unable to become pregnant.
As in the above mentioned fertility treatments allowed in Russia, straight couples and single women can undergo surrogacy, while same-sex couples do not.
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