In general, the two reasons for the use of surrogacy are the absence or abnormality of the uterus or a medical contraindication.
Cases of absent/abnormal uterus:
- MRKH syndrome. Mayer-Rokitansky-Küster-Hauser syndrome is a disorder where the female is born with an underdeveloped or absent uterus and vagina.
- History of hysterectomy – a surgery to remove the uterus
- Multiple fibroid tumors of the uterus that cannot resolved by a surgery
- Severe intrauterine scarring (Asherman’s syndrome) irreparable
- A single male or gay male couple
- Unexplained recurrent pregnancy loss or unsuccessful embryo implantations
- Inability to develop the uterine lining (endometrium)
Cases of medical contraindications (relative and absolute):
- A serious medical condition that worsens with pregnancy posing risk to mother and fetus
- Pulmonary hypertension
- Turner’s syndrome
- Uterine cancer