Leukocytes or pyrocytes are generally scarce in the seminal fluid or even absent. However, if there is a large number of these cells, it could be an indication that there is an infection. This high presence of leukocytes is known as leukospermia, leukocytospermia or pyospermia.
It is common to observe some of them in semen samples when seminograms are performed. However, when they are in an abnormally high concentration (over 1 million leukocytes per ml according to WHO definition), it can compromise male fertility because it increases oxidative stress and causes a worsening of seminal quality, as it can affect sperm concentration. The presence of leukocytes in sperm can cause temporary sterility.
For this reason, in cases where leukospermia is detected, specific treatment is needed to resolve this sterility and prevent it from having a negative impact on the result of in vitro fertilization or becoming permanent.