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IVF Spain Donostia Support Group

Fertility Support Group
This clinic is part of the Fertility Support Group Program.

Get Answers from IVF Spain Donostia

What are the recommendations prior to hysterosalpingography?
By Zulyma Blanco Maldonado. Last Update: 12/15/2021

Hysterosalpingography is a radiological procedure that aims to assess the morphology of the uterine cavity, the contours of the endometrium and tubal patency, the latter factor being responsible for between 25 and 35% of the causes of infertility and a necessary aspect to know as part before an artificial insemination procedure.

As it is a somewhat invasive gynecological procedure, it is contraindicated to perform it if the patient has pelvic infection, but even in the absence of it, as a prophylactic measure, the administration of antibiotics is indicated the day or days prior to the study. Likewise, to avoid pain or discomfort after the procedure, it is recommended to take anti-inflammatory analgesic from the night before.

Imagen: recommendations-previous-hysterosalpingography

The procedure should be performed in the first half of the menstrual cycle (7 to 10 days after the onset of the last menstrual period) during the proliferative phase of the endometrium, which facilitates the interpretation of the image. In addition, it is recommended not to have unprotected sex in that cycle, which ensures that there is no ongoing pregnancy. Studies performed in the second phase of the cycle may lead to false results.

What happens if progressive sperm motility is above 32% but total motility is below 40%?
By María Velasco Álvarez. Last Update: 09/30/2021

When performing a basic semen study, sperm motility is an important parameter that can be decisive in the diagnosis and selection of the most appropriate treatment.

In terms of motility, three types of spermatozoa are determined: progressively motile (PM), non-progressively motile (NP) and immotile (IM). MPs are those spermatozoa that move and are mobile. NPs, on the other hand, refer to spermatozoa that are semi-motile, but are not able to move. Finally, immotile spermatozoa neither move nor are able to move.

According to the WHO, the MP should be higher than 32% and the sum of MP and NP higher than 40%. Samples with values below the reference values are diagnosed as asthenozoospermia.

Although a priori the motility criteria contemplate, on the one hand, progressive motility and, on the other, the sum of total motility (MP and NP), at the time of diagnosis only MP is taken into account, which must be greater than 32%. Therefore, if the percentage of motile spermatozoa in a sample is higher than 32%, it will be considered as normal motility.

When performing a basic semen study, sperm motility is an important parameter that can be decisive in the diagnosis and selection of the most appropriate treatment.

In terms of motility, three types of spermatozoa are determined: progressively motile (PM), non-progressively motile (NP) and immotile (IM). MPs are those spermatozoa that move and are mobile. NPs, on the other hand, refer to spermatozoa that are semi-motile, but are not able to move. Finally, immotile spermatozoa neither move nor are able to move.

According to the WHO, the MP should be higher than 32% and the sum of MP and NP higher than 40%. Samples with values below the reference values are diagnosed as asthenozoospermia.

Although a priori the motility criteria contemplate, on the one hand, progressive motility and, on the other, the sum of total motility (MP and NP), at the time of diagnosis only MP is taken into account, which must be greater than 32%. Therefore, if the percentage of motile spermatozoa in a sample is higher than 32%, it will be considered as normal motility.

However, it is important to emphasise that, for a correct diagnosis, days of abstinence should be limited to 2-7 days. Prolonged abstinence, longer than 7 days, may have a negative impact on some parameters, such as motility. The percentage of motile spermatozoa decreases as the days of abstinence increase, so it is essential to take this into account.

Is it necessary to wait for the arrival of the period to make an AI?
By Zulyma Blanco Maldonado. Last Update: 07/29/2021

Artificial insemination or AI is one of the best known treatments in Assisted Reproduction.

It is a simple and minimally invasive technique, which consists of introducing a semen sample into the mother's uterus. For this, it is important that ovulation is taking place at that moment, for which ovarian stimulation is often used. In addition, the sperm deposited are previously capacitated in the laboratory, i.e. those with the highest fertilisation potential are selected.

As in any fertility treatment, in Artificial Insemination (AI), the monitoring begins in the first three days of the menstrual period and ends with the pregnancy test in blood four weeks later.

The first day of the menstrual cycle is the day of heavy vaginal bleeding, where the hormone levels of oestrogen and progesterone should be low. This triggers the start of the hormonal cycle and the response of the pituitary gland in the brain to begin production of the follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) necessary for follicle recruitment and subsequent ovulation.

Even with irregular hormonal cycles, the first day of the period marks the start of the menstrual cycle.

What consequences can cholesterol have on female infertility?
By Zulyma Blanco Maldonado. Last Update: 07/28/2021

Several studies have shown how high LDL cholesterol levels can affect the time to pregnancy. In particular, couples with high LDL blood levels take longer to achieve pregnancy compared to couples with normal cholesterol levels.

Women with high levels of cholesterol in their bodies may have impaired ovulation due to hormonal imbalances.

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