The semen analysis is a key study in the evaluation of a couple's infertility and is fundamental for defining the treatment that can help in achieving pregnancy.
The basic semen analysis (seminogram or spermogram) not only evaluates the number and motility of the spermatozoa but should also study the volume, color, liquefaction, viscosity, and pH of the seminal fluid, the presence of leukocytes in the ejaculate, or the morphology of the spermatozoa.
It should be understood that the seminal sample in an ejaculate not only contains cells from the testes but also fluid from the seminal vesicles and prostate and that alterations at these two levels can produce alterations in the physical and chemical characteristics of the sample.
One of the important aspects to evaluate in the basic semen analysis is the sperm morphology, that is, the appearance of the spermatozoa and, as a percentage, the number of cells that are abnormal. If this percentage is higher than 96%, which implies that there are less than 4% of normal cells, in the case of infertility, the recommended treatment is in vitro fertilization with sperm microinjection.
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