The female menstrual cycle is hormonally regulated by the hypothalamic-pituitary-ovarian axis. In short, we can summarize the entire process as follows:
- The pituitary gland releases gonadotropins FSH and LH, which activates the development and maturation of eggs in the ovary.
- Simultaneously, ovarian growth leads to the release of estrogen and progesterone, which will allow endometrial growth to favor embryo implantation.
- The brain will be notified about the increase in estrogen and progesterone levels. As a result, it will reduced FSH and LH levels.
- At the same time, progesterone and estrogen levels will decrease, closing the feedback regulation cycle of the menstrual cycle.
By Andrea Rodrigo BSc, MSc (embryologist), Dr. Elena Santiago Romero MD (gynecologist), Zaira Salvador BSc, MSc (embryologist) and Sandra Fernández BA, MA (fertility counselor).
Last Update: 01/15/2019