Tubal factor can be diagnosed by various tests, often when a woman or couple attends a fertility consultation because they are having trouble getting pregnant.
Among the different diagnostic tests to evaluate the patency of the fallopian tubes are:
- this test is usually performed in consultation, but it can only diagnose hydrosalpinx of considerable size.
- Hysterosalpingography (HSG)
- contrast liquid is inserted through the cervix and X-ray images will be taken as the uterine cavity and fallopian tubes fill. If there is an obstruction, the contrast liquid introduced could not fill the tube and, therefore, this would be seen on the X-ray.
- the rationale is the same as in the previous case, but here a saline solution or gel is used to fill the tubes and the images are taken by ultrasound.
- is usually only performed when there is some alteration that can be operated on at the time of surgery, since laparoscopy requires general anesthesia. It is an intervention by which small incisions are made that allow a camera to be inserted to view the interior of the pelvic cavity.
The tubes need to be permeable to allow contact of the sperm with the egg. Any obstruction of the tube will be a reason for female infertility due to tubal factor.