Under normal conditions, the human immune system has a sophisticated mechanism of action by which it detects foreign bodies coming from the outside that are likely to endanger the human being.
However, in certain women this system is altered by detecting the sperm as an invading agent. This is why these women generate molecules, called antibodies, which recognize the presence of spermatozoa and alert the immune system so that they can be eliminated.
The presence of these anti-sperm antibodies is usually detected in the woman's cervix and is concentrated in the mucus. In this way, the sperm are annihilated as they pass through the cervical canal. This can be a problem of secondary female infertility, as the male cells are unable to get past this barrier and reach the egg.
To detect that a woman has antisperm antibodies, the postcoital examination (PCE) should be performed. In this test, the cervical mucus is examined and the presence of live or dead sperm is detected after sexual intercourse between the couple suspected of infertility.
If the diagnosis is confirmed, the couple can undergo artificial insemination treatment, in which the sperm are placed inside the uterine cavity. In this way the passage through the hostile cervical mucus is avoided.