Sperm capacitation is the process through which the sperm passes so that the sperm acquire the necessary capacity to be able to fertilize the egg. In assisted reproduction treatments, sperm capacitation takes place in the laboratory. There are two training methods for this:
- Density gradients
- separate sperm according to their ability to pass through media of different density. Those spermatozoa of better quality and with greater mobility will reach the bottom of the tube, while those of lesser quality will remain at the top of the tube.
- Swim up
- is an older and less used process. This technique consists of incorporating a medium into the seminal sample and centrifuging it. Afterward, the seminal plasma is removed and a specific medium is added to the tube in a tilted position. The spermatozoa with the best mobility will ascend in the tube.