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Testicular biopsy is used to obtain sperm when sperm cannot be obtained by ejaculation. It is indicated in cases of azoospermia, when sperm have been obtained without sperm in the semen sample or to achieve pregnancy after a vasectomy.
In cases of azoospermia, sperm will be retrieved if the cause is an obstruction (obstructive azoospermia). In case the problem is in sperm production, if a sperm-producing focus of the testicle is not located, it is very difficult to find sperm in the biopsy as well.
Since the seminal sample does not contain sperm (which is the reason why biopsy is usually indicated), having sexual intercourse before the biopsy will not influence the results of the procedure.
This technique is recommended for those cases of infertility in which there is a very low concentration of sperm in the male ejaculate. Epididymal sperm aspiration is also recommended for those cases in which there is a complete absence of sperm in the sample (obstructive azoospermia) due to blockage or congenital absence of the vas deferens.
In addition, those men who have previously had a vasectomy, but wish to have children, can also have this procedure performed to obtain sperm.
Whenever sperm aspiration is performed, it must be complemented with ICSI (intracytoplasmic sperm injection) to try to fertilize the eggs.
IVM (In Vitro Maturation) of oocytes is a technique that has been known for more than 20 years, but its clinical application remains very limited. The pregnancy rate results when IVM is applied are still worse than with IVF.
However, there are some cases where IVM can provide advantages over IVF:
- To optimize the performance of patients with low response. There are cases in which women respond less than expected to ovarian stimulation, so there are small follicles that do not grow with medication. These follicles can be aspirated along with the rest of the large follicles on the day of the puncture resulting in obtaining immature oocytes that could be matured in vitro to obtain more embryos after IVF.
- For women to whom the administration of gonadotropins for ovarian stimulation is contraindicated..
- For patients with polycystic ovaries and high risk of ovarian hyperstimulation using gonadotropins.
- For oncologic patients or patients with other pathologies that require urgent fertility preservation.
In the cases mentioned above, IVM is becoming more important, since it would allow us to increase the number of oocytes to be preserved without having to wait longer and without having to undergo more hormonal treatment before proceeding with the treatment of the disease.
No, ovulation induction is the process by which the growth of 1 or several follicles of the ovary is produced thanks to the administration of drugs called Gonadotropins. After this, ovulation is usually triggered in a controlled manner.
Once this ovulation induction has been performed, intercourse can be programmed, that is to say, the couple can be told when ovulation will occur approximately and when they should have sexual intercourse to increase the chances of pregnancy.
In the treatment of frozen embryos, oocyte or embryo donation, when carried out in a substituted cycle (with medication) the hormonal secretion of the ovary must be simulated. In this way, treatment is initiated with the patient's period and estrogens are added in tablets or patches to promote endometrial growth. Normally, a control ultrasound is performed after 10-12 days to check this growth. If the appearance is trilaminar and the thickness is above 7-8 mm, the endometrium is considered to be ready for the embryo transfer. For this, progesterone should be added as many days before the embryo to be transferred. Both hormones (estrogen and progesterone) must be maintained at least until the day of the pregnancy test and if it is positive, the first weeks of gestation will be maintained.
Today there is still much ignorance as to what factors affect fertility. For example, when a male has a seminogram and it is altered, most of the time we will not know the cause.
Just like food, life habits such as exercising and not consuming toxins are very important for reproduction. We know that environmental factors can also affect, although we are not yet sure how they all affect each other.
A rise in temperature maintained in the area of the external genitalia of males can be one of the causes of poor semen quality. In this sense, laptops can be affected when used on the lap. Studies in urology describe that with more than 10-15 minutes of computer use in the lap, scrotal temperature increases considerably and this can cause problems in sperm production. Therefore, it is recommended that computers are used on the table so that this potentially damaging temperature increase does not occur.
Fertility, among other things, depends on the health of each person, so food is one of the most important bases before and during pregnancy.
It is advisable to follow a healthy and varied diet. The Mediterranean diet is ideal for this, as it provides the necessary nutrients for a healthy lifestyle. In addition, you can eat as many times a day as necessary, but taking into account the appropriate amounts for each person.
Estrogens are the hormones produced by ovaries. A very low level of estrogen is usually found in a case of non-functioning ovaries (in cases of ovarian failure, menopause, etc.). The consequences of having a very low level of estrogen are the same as during menopause (vaginal dryness, decreased libido, etc.).
In a woman's normal menstrual cycle, for two or three days there is a low level of oestrogen (the first few days of menstruation) but the oestrogens quickly start to rise, until they reach a maximum, when ovulation occurs.
The implant is a long-lasting, but reversible method of contraception. It has a contraceptive efficacy of 99.95% and a single implant can last up to 5 years.
It is a small metal device, which is placed under the skin of the arm. It works thanks to the hormonal release of gestagens that will inhibit ovulation. It is true that women can witness changes in the amount and duration of their periods, there are even women who will not have menstruation during its use.
Once it is removed, the contraceptive effect disappears quickly and the ovulatory cycles will continue in a normal way, so it does not affect fertility at all.
It is always one more tool that will provide us with more information. This technique allows us to select chromosomally normal embryos and, therefore, increases the pregnancy rate for each embryo transferred and reduces the risk of miscarriage.
Yes, HPV is not a contraindication for pregnancy or assisted reproductive techniques, as long as the virus has not caused any injury to the cervix, vagina or external genitalia. For this reason, all women undergoing treatment will be asked for a Pap smear beforehand. If any lesion is present, we will have to wait for it to resolve, but if the HPV is present and the Pap is negative and there are no lesions, we will be able to go ahead with the process without any problem. The woman will just have to follow her usual check-ups.
Normally, pregnancy follow-up after IVF is exactly the same as a spontaneous pregnancy, but it must be kept in mind that many of the women who undergo assisted reproduction treatments are over 35 and even 40 years old. In other words, the risks derived from chromosomal alterations will be increased. Nowadays, thanks to prenatal blood diagnosis techniques in the first weeks of pregnancy, we can detect chromosomal alterations even before performing the first trimester ultrasound. We will recommend this type of analysis to older women who have achieved pregnancy with their own eggs.
Ovarian insufficiency or ovarian failure is the condition suffered by young women, under 42 years, with malfunction of the ovary due to low ovarian reserve.
All women lose proper ovarian function at some point in their lives, since the ovary is endowed with follicles (which inside have eggs) that are going to decrease throughout our lives, and are not going to regenerate again.
If exhaustion comes at 48 years, it is not a problem, and menopause occurs naturally.
However, in other women, there may be ovarian depletion at a young age. If it is accompanied by alterations in the pattern of the menstruational cycles, an early ovarian failure will occur. If, on the other hand, there are no alterations in the menstrual pattern, it will be called occult ovarian failure.
If the woman has regular cycles, requesting the Antimullerian Hormone is enough for us to know how her ovarian reserve is. However, if the cycles are irregular, we will need to request other hormones such as FSH, LH, estradiol, or prolactin to know the cause: polycystic ovary syndrome, menopause, hyperprolactinemia, etc. In all cases, we will also ask for thyroid hormones, as it is important to check that the levels are normal for fertility and pregnancy.
Women who have hypothyroidism suffer from a slowdown in the production of hormones by the thyroid gland.
In these women, it is necessary, regardless of the technique used (fertilization in vitro, ovodonation), to correct with thyroid hormone (oral tablets) until a good TSH is obtained, below 2.5 (thyroid hormone) to guarantee that the implantation can be produced without problems.
This treatment will continue until pregnancy and it is important to make periodic controls with the endocrinologist to evaluate if it is necessary to increase or decrease the doses of the treatment.
Pelvic inflammatory disease is a pathology that is diagnosed by the presence of clinical compatible with it: fever, pelvic pain and the finding in the cervical culture or culture of endometrial aspirate bacteria that produce this pathology, such as gonococcus or chlamydia, among other things.
The most sensitive diagnostic test is laparoscopy, but in the vast majority of cases the diagnosis of pelvic inflammatory disease is made without having to resort to it. Blood tests are performed to determine the degree of infection, leukocytosis, as well as cultures with swabbing to detect bacteria that may cause this disease.
The duration of artificial insemination is usually about 5 minutes if there is no problem. After the process, the patient will rest for 20-30 minutes and then leave the clinic with the instructions until the day of the pregnancy test.
Rest after insemination is not obligatory, as no evidence exists that it improves the pregnancy rate.
There are several causes that can cause us not to ovulate. One of the most common is Polycystic Ovary Syndrome, a benign condition that affects many young women. It consists of an endocrine disorder that does not allow correct ovulation.
There could also be anovulation of hypothalamic or pituitary cause, such as intense physical exercise, low weight, etcetera. Other hormonal alterations such as alterations in thyroid hormone (TSH) or prolactin, can cause ovulation not to occur properly.
Advanced age would also be a cause why, in spite of having periods, in many cycles ovulation does not occur regularly.
Ovitrelle is a hormone called chorionic gonadotropin. It is administered to induce ovulation in those women who do not ovulate spontaneously or after ovarian stimulation as part of an assisted reproduction treatment.
Depending on the bioavailability of the drug, its half-life is 30 hours, after which most of it will be eliminated from the body. However, there may be interference in blood and urine tests up to 10 days after administration, which may lead to false-positive pregnancy tests. It is important that patients are warned to always take a pregnancy test at least 11 days after Ovitrelle has been administered.
Although there exists different studies that relate an advanced age with fertility problems, actually it is still unclear.
In the testicle, sperm production is a permanent process, contrary to what happens in with egg production in females. This is the reason why, freezing sperm as a preventive measure is not so useful as in the case of egg freezing, since egg quality and quantity decreases from age 35 onwards.
Unless there exists a disorder that affects sperm production, in the case of cancer patients who are going to undergo chemotherapy or radiotherapy, or if the man undergoes some kind of surgery (such as in the case of vasectomy), freezing sperm for the future is not required.
The triple test or triple screen is a universal test that is done in all women when they are pregnant, particularly around week 12 of pregnancy. It pays special attention to the risk of Down's syndrome in the fetus by combining two markers from the first trimester ultrasound with two hormones examined in pregnant women (BHCG + AFP) along with her age.
In case your OB/GYN refers you directly to invasive tests (amnio test or chorionic villus sampling) because you've been pregnant before and chromosomal abnormalities were detected in the fetus, then a triple test would be unnecessary.
Yes, although the chances are quite low.
When we classify embryos according to their quality at the lab, we do so by evaluating their implantation potential, that is, trying to "guess" which ones have greater chances for attaching tot he uterus, and which don't. C and D scored embryos are embryos of moderate-to-low quality, which means that a C or D scored embryo has a reduced chance of implantation if compared to a B or A scored embryo. In any case, however, whenever we select an embryo for the transfer, it's because it has been observed that its implantation potential is a good one.
The number of embryos to transfer to a patient is not dependent on the technique performed for the genetic analysis of embryos, but on the stage, quality, and particularities of each patient. Preimplantation Genetic Diagnosis is usually performed in cases of advanced maternal age (aneuploidy screening) or when there exist severe genetic pathologies (in many cases, present in the woman). In both situations, a multiple pregnancy would be contraindicated.
So, given all these circumstances, doctors usually recommend Single Embryo Transfers (SETs).
ICSI or Intracytoplasmic Sperm Injection is a type of In Vitro Fertilization that is used to fertilize the egg cell. With ICSI, the sperm cell is selected and injected within each one of the eggs collected.
Unanimously recognized indications of ICSI include:
- Severe male infertility: a single sperm per egg cell is enough
- Previous fertilization failure using conventional IVF
- Issues with the oocytes: poor-quality eggs may compromise sperm penetration into the egg cell
- Techniques that involve isolating the egg from the cells that surround it (egg donation, preimplantation diagnosis...)
The treatment to follow varies depending on whether it is a fresh embryo transfer (after an IVF cycle) or a frozen embryo transfer.
With fresh embryos, patients follow a hormonal treatment based on applying injections to stimulate the ovaries during 10 days approximately. After retrieving the eggs, the patient starts taking progesterone vaginally or subcutaneosly.
With frozen embryos, patients have to prepare during 2 weeks with estrogens (in patches or tablets). Depending on the day of the embryo transfer, progesterone may be prescribed as well. In some cases, the patient follows a natural cycle, without using estrogens.
Seminal quality can also be evaluated by studying the genetic content of spermatozoa. First, we can study DNA integrity, which is fundamental to obtain correct embryonic development. However, sometimes it is fragmented. The fragmentation test evaluates the percentage of fragmented spermatozoa in the ejaculate.
On the other hand, we can study if the sperm have a correct chromosomal content through the FISH study (5 pairs of chromosomes are evaluated) or Chromosperm (a general chromosomal profile is evaluated). An ejaculate with a high percentage of chromosomally altered sperm could generate a greater number of aneuploid embryos.
Hydrocele is the accumulation of fluid between one of the layers of the testicle (vaginal tunic) and the scrotum of one or both testicles. It can be congenital (affects babies at birth) or acquired, i.e. secondary to infections, trauma, tumors, surgeries on the testicle, etc.
In most cases the hydrocele is presented as an inflammation of the testicle, not painful or causing mild discomfort. In itself, it is not a cause of sterility but certain cases, such as those caused by an infection, can reduce the reproductive capacity.
Anti-Müllerian hormone is produced by the ovary, and its blood levels are an indicator of a woman's ovarian reserve.
To ensure everything works as expected, we recommend that the first measurement is done from age 20 and not later than age 30. By doing this, if a woman has a diminished ovarian reserve at a young age, she would have time to decide whether she wants to have a baby now or cryopreserve some eggs to become a mother in the future.
There are no concrete actions to increase sperm volume. The right thing would be to redirect the question towards: how can semen quality be improved?
Seminal characteristics are specific to each male. However, there are certain factors that can modify the quality of the semen, causing it to increase or decrease.
Factors that diminish seminal quality are: tobacco, alcohol, drugs, a bad diet, a very stressful life rhythm, continuous and direct exposure to radiation or chemical agents harmful to health.
In order to improve seminal quality the right thing is to lead a healthy way of life:
- Balanced and healthy food (encourage the regular consumption of foods rich in antioxidants)
- Maintain an adequate weight (excess weight is negative for seminal quality)
- Maintain a low-moderate stress level
However, there are pathologies such as agenesis of vas deferens, infections in glands such as seminal vesicles or prostate, etc. that can reduce the volume of an ejaculate, and therefore it is very important to consult a specialist.
The number of embryos to be transferred to a patient does not depend on the technique that has been practiced on the embryo, but on the day it is found, its quality and the intrinsic characteristics of each patient. The performance of a Preimplantation Genetic Diagnosis is associated in most cases with advanced maternal age (screening of aneuploidies) or the presence of serious genetic pathologies (in many cases present in the woman). In both cases, multiple pregnancy is contraindicated.
For all these circumstances, the medical advice is usually the transfer of a single embryo.