The karyotype is the set of chromosomes of an individual ordered according to their morphology and size. Therefore, its study allows the detection of numerical and structural anomalies in the chromosomes.
The human being has 46 chromosomes (23 pairs) and they contain all the genetic information of an individual. For this reason, the karyotype is nothing more than the way information is organized and ordered.
To obtain a person's karyotype, a blood draw is necessary. From there, the lymphocytes are cultured in the laboratory until the chromosomes are compacted to the maximum and observed under the microscope.