Endoscopic Surgery: Hysteroscopy & Laparoscopy

By BSc, MSc (embryologist) and BA, MA (fertility counselor).
Last Update: 02/18/2015

Endoscopy is a technique that consists of introducing an endoscope or optical system (lighted tube connected to a video camera and a television monitor) through the abdominal wall, or a natural orifice, in order to observe the inside of an organ or cavity. The information obtained by this technique is more reliable than that provide by physical examinations, ultrasounds or radiological techniques.

Until recently, these procedures were used with a purely diagnostic purpose. Nowadays, it is also used as a less aggressive treatment of gynaecological pathologies. This technique requires hospitalization for a few hours, but the patient can return home on the same day of the surgery.

Advantages of endoscopic surgery

The endoscopic technique is the technique of choice in certain cases because of the following advantages:

  • Hospitalization for only a few hours, that is to say, the patient can return home on the same day.
  • The inconveniences are minor when compared to those of a conventional surgery because the patient avoids modifying their normal work and social activities.
  • Better cosmetic results.
  • It causes less bleeding and blood loss, while also reducing the formation of adhesions.


Hysteroscopy is a technique that consists of diagnosing and treating diseases of the uterine cavity. This requires a small endoscope to be inserted through the cervix. Saline Serum dilates the uterus and allows its interior to be observed. Depending on the type of hysteroscope, the hysterpscopy can be diagnostic or surgical.

Diagnostic hysteroscopy

The purpose of the diagnostic hysteroscopy is to diagnose intracavitary pathologies, through small interventions and biopsies. It is indicated in cases of suspected uterine adhesions, endometrial polyps, fibroids, uterine septum, removal of IUD and other devices, in case studies of the endometrial cavity before an assisted reproduction treatment, infertility, menstrual disorders, implantation failure, etc.

Surgical hysteroscopy

In this case, the hysteroscope is thicker and a surgery is necessary because the cervix has to be dilated and, in consequence, sedation is needed. It is indicated in cases of submucosal fibroids or large polyps.


A laparoscopy allows the abdominal cavity to be visualized in a minimally invasive way. C02, inert gas for the tissues, allows all the organs of the abdominal cavity to be observed through the introduction of an optical system.

The objective of this technique is to diagnose and fix any problems found during the course of the intervention. The main indications for this technique are: study of infertility, diagnosis of uterine malformations, pelvic pain, tubal ligation, endometriosis, ovarian cysts and masses, ectopic pregnancy, oophorectomy, myomectomy, salpingectomy, follicular puncture, hysterectomy, etc.

48 to 72 hours after this intervention, the patient can return to her normal life.

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Authors and contributors

 Clara Miret Lucio
Clara Miret Lucio
BSc, MSc
Bachelor's Degree in Pharmacy from the University of Valencia (UV). Master's Degree in Biotechnology of Human Assisted Reproduction from the UV. Experience as a pharmacist and embryologist specialized in Reproductive Medicine at Valencian Infertility Institute (IVI), and currently at Equipo Juana Crespo (Valencia, Spain). More information about Clara Miret Lucio
Adapted into english by:
 Sandra Fernández
Sandra Fernández
Fertility Counselor
Bachelor of Arts in Translation and Interpreting (English, Spanish, Catalan, German) from the University of Valencia (UV) and Heriot-Watt University, Riccarton Campus (Edinburgh, UK). Postgraduate Course in Legal Translation from the University of Valencia. Specialist in Medical Translation, with several years of experience in the field of Assisted Reproduction. More information about Sandra Fernández

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