Normozoospermia or normospermia is the clinical term used by specialists to refer to normal sperm, that is, without sperm disorders that indicate poor sperm quality or male infertility.
The diagnosis of normozoospermia is normally found at the end of a semen analysis report, the test used to evaluate sperm quality.
For a sperm sample to be considered as normozoospermic, it must be in line with the parameters established by the World Health Organization (WHO) back in year 2010.
The different sections of this article have been assembled into the following table of contents.
Basic semen analysis
A semen analysis or sperm test is the most important fertility test in males. It involves an examination of the sperm sample, which is collected through masturbation, considering the visual appearance of the sample, as well as the number of sperm. This is all possible thanks to the use of a microscope.
Firstly, the lab personnel in charge of collecting the sample examines it macroscopically, evaluating the following parameters:
- Liquefaction time
After this first step, a more thorough, microscopic analysis is performed, where parameters associated with sperm cells themselves and other microscopic cells are considered, including:
- Sperm count
- Percentage of motile spermatozoa and their average speed
- Sperm morphology
- Sperm vitality
- Presence of white blood cells (leukocytospermia or pyospermia) or immature cells
All these parameters provide information on seminal quality as well as on the potential sperm disorders causing infertility in the male, if any.
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When the semen analysis report is ready, the results should be compared to the reference values to find out if they are normal or not.
Reference values were published by the WHO in 2010 after studying the semen parameters of over 1900 fertile males.
Particularly, to ensure a man has normozoospermia, and therefore everything is okay at least with sperm parameters, the results should come back with results that are equal to or above the following values:
- 1.5 ml
- 15 million per ml, or 39 million in total per ejaculate
- 40% of sperm are motile, or 32% have progressive motility
- 4% of sperm are normal
- 58% of live sperm
These values correspond to reference limits for sperm parameters. In other words, it means that, for a man to be considered fertile or normozoospermic, his results must be above these figures.
Although sperm parameters explained in previous sections are the most important ones to determine sperm quality, there exist others related to the semen and its components that can provide us with substantial information, too.
For example, the color of a normal semen sample must be yellow to grey. If it is too transparent, it might indicate the presence of an infection. Moreover, viscosity should not be too high.
As for pH, it should range between 7 and 8. pH variations may indicate the presence of an infection as well.
Finally, the presence of leukocytes or white blood cells (WBCs) should be equal to or fewer than 1 million per milliliter to dismiss potential issues with spermatogenesis (sperm production process) or infections.
FAQs from users
Despite normozoospermia we aren't able to get pregnant. Which other tests could we get done?
As stated in the Manual of Andrology of the Spanish Society of Fertility: "although the results of semen analysis can give us information about problems in the function of the male genital organs, they do not allow us to determine with certainty whether an individual is fertile or not". So, if the semen analysis is normal, should other tests be performed? In the initial assessment of a couple with reproductive dysfunction, no. The seminogram is more a tool to guide treatment than to reach a diagnosis.
It is true that there are other complementary tests that can help to study the semen in greater depth, such as the study of the double-stranded DNA fragmentation of the spermatozoa. This type of test promises to advance in the evaluation of the male but even so, we insist, they are not indicated in the initial study of a couple with reproductive dysfunction. Even if you have normozoospermia.
Can oligozoospermia go away on its own and result in normozoospermia?
Yes. Sperm quality varies quite often and is dependent on lifestyle factors. It is likely that stress or the flu affect spermatogenesis, and the results of a semen analysis report appear altered, including problems of oligozoospermia, asthenozoospermia, etc.
The good news is that a man can recover his fertility within 3 months if the cause of infertility is improved or disappears. A balanced diet, doing sports, and quitting toxic habits can contribute to improving sperm quality to a large extent.
Is normozoospermia possible with increased viscosity levels?
Viscosity is more related to the composition of the semen than with spermatozoa themselves. Even though high viscosity levels rarely cause male infertility, it might be associated with sperm motility issues. For this reason, it should be taken into account when performing a semen analysis.
Moreover, too high viscosity levels are associated with prostate complications
Can I get my wife pregnant with normozoospermia?
In principle, yes. As explained above, normozoospermia means normal sperm, which is considered the ideal scenario to conceive according to the WHO's guidelines.
A man with good sperm quality is someone whose sperm are able to travel through the female reproductive tract and reach the egg.
In spite of that, it is possible for sperm to carry DNA abnormalities that cannot be detected through a basic semen analysis. In that case, in spite of being normozoospermic, fertilization or implantation failure could take place.
Suggested for you
If you have just done a semen analysis and have doubts as regards how to interpret the results, this article can be helpful: Sperm Test Results Explained – Interpretation & Normal Values.
Also, if you are considering examining your fertility, you might be interested in getting an overall idea about the tests and exams you might be required with this comprehensive guide: Male Fertility Testing – How Do You Know if You Are Infertile?
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FAQs from users: 'Despite normozoospermia we aren't able to get pregnant. Which other tests could we get done?', 'Can oligozoospermia go away on its own and result in normozoospermia?', 'Is normozoospermia possible with increased viscosity levels?' and 'Can I get my wife pregnant with normozoospermia?'.