An increase in the permeability of blood vessels causes an ovarian enlargement and the acute extravasation of fluids from bloodstream. The function of the hepatic, hematologic, kidney, and respiratory systems is compromised; therefore, severe OHSS can be considered as life-threatening.
Its frequency varies from 0.6 up to 14% among women undergoing ovulation induction treatments. Severe OHSS incidence ranges from 0.2-1.8% and that of moderate OHSS is 3.1-6%. Furthermore, it is more frequent in cycles where the woman becomes pregnant.
Depending on the time it takes to appear, it can be classified in two different forms: early OHSS (3-7 days since the administration of hCG) and late OHSS (12-17 days since the administration of hCG). The latter usually occurs when there is pregnancy.
It is usually caused after the administration of gonadotrophins or if endogenous LH levels increase naturally.
This syndrome is very limited in duration, since it disappears after the beginning of menstruation. However, it should be under control and an appropriate medical follow-up should be done through transvaginal ultrasounds, to be sure more serious complications won’t appear.
Risk depends on each individual case, mainly because it may be affected by factors such as age, each person’s muscle mass, if you have ever been pregnant, if it is a case of multiple births, etc. Should you need further information about guessing your own situation and which risk factors most affect you, please have a look at this section.
Like in any other illness or health problem, it is rational to follow a ‘better safe than sorry’ strategy. Thus, we give you some tips here so that both doctor and patient are able to prevent, as far as possible, the development of ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome (OHSS).